已读91%

[注释]

导言

(1).MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, l. 31; d. 3, ll. 18–19.

(2).我的估计基于 M. Ellman, ,Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments, , Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 54, no. 7(November 2002), pp. 1151–72。 从1934年到1953年,Ellman提供的古拉格判刑案例是1875万。不过在这段时期,许多古拉格囚犯的判刑不止一次。他还提供了同期的其他数据:至少有100万人遭到处决;200万人征入从属于古拉格系统的劳动大军和其他强制劳役;500万少数民族被逐出家园。根据最可靠的估计,1928年后受迫害的“富农”约有1000万人。所以,加在一起的总数约是3650万,减去重复的古拉格判刑,所剩下的2500万应该是合理的,这个数字很可能低于实际情况。

(3).Interview with Elena Dombrovskaia, Moscow, January 2003.

(4).MP, f. 4, op. 25, d. 2, ll. 9–10.

(5).M. Gefter, ,V predchuvstvii proshlogo, , Vek XX i mir, 1990, no. 9, p. 29.

(6).See e.g. V. Kaverin, Epilog: Memuary(Moscow, 1989); K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia(Moscow, 1990).

(7).有关文献相当丰富,例如:A. Barmine, One Who Survived(New York, 1945); V. Kravchenko, I Chose Freedom: The Personal and Political Life of a Soviet Official(London, 1947); A. Gorbatov, Years off My Life(London, 1964); N. Kaminskaya, Final Judgment: My Life as a Soviet Defence Attorney(New York, 1982); N. Mandelstam, Hope Against Hope(London, 1989); same author, Hope Abandoned(London, 1990); E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind(New York, 1967); same author, Within the Whirlwind(New York, 1981); L. Bogoraz, ,Iz vospominanii, , Minuvshee, vol. 2(Paris, 1986); L. Kopelev, No Jail for Thought(London, 1979); same author, The Education of a True Believer(London, 1980); T. Aksakova-Sivers, Semeinaia khronika, 2 vols.(Paris, 1988); Mikhail Baitalsky, Notebooks for the Grandchildren: Recollections of a Trotskyist Who Survived the Stalin Terror(New Jersey, 1995)。

(8).A. Krylova, ,The Tenacious Liberal Subject in Soviet Studies, , Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, vol. 1, no. 1(Winter 2000), pp. 119–46.

(9).有关文献也相当丰富,其中颇有价值的有:O. Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put,(Moscow, 1993); A. Raikin, Vospominaniia(St Petersburg, 1993); I. Diakonov, Kniga vospominanii(St Petersburg, 1995); Iu. Liuba, Vospominaniia(St Petersburg, 1998); I. Shikheeva-Gaister, Semeinaia khronika vremen kul,ta lichnosti(1925–53 gg.)(Moscow, 1998); I. Dudareva, Proshloe vsegda s nami: vospominaniia(St Petersburg, 1998); E. Evangulova, Krestnyi put,(St Petersburg, 2000); K. Atarova, Vcherashnyi den,: vokrug sem, i Atarovykh-Dal, tsevykh: vospominaniia(Moscow, 2001); L. El, iashova, My ukhodim, my ostaemsia. Kniga 1: Dedy, ottsy(St Petersburg, 2001); N. Iudkovskii, Rekviem dvum semeistvam: vospominaniia(Moscow, 2002); E. Vlasova, Domashnyi al, bom: vospominaniia(Moscow, 2002); P. Kodzaev, Vospominaniia reabilitirovannogo spetspereselentsa(Vladikavkaz, 2002); E. Liusin, Pis, mo-vospominaniia o prozhitykh godakh(Kaluga, 2002); A. Bovin, XXvek kak zhizn, : vospominaniia(Moscow, 2003). See also: I. Paperno, ,Personal Accounts of the Soviet Experience, , Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, vol. 3, no. 4(Autumn 2002), pp. 577–610。

(10).See e.g. S. Fitzpatrick, Stalin, s Peasants: Resistance and Survival in the Russian Village After Collectivization(New York, 1994); S. Davies, Popular Opinion in Stalin, s Russia: Terror, Propaganda and Dissent, 1934–1941(Cambridge, 1997); S. Kotkin, Magnetic Mountain: Stalinism as a Civilization(Berkeley, 1997).

(11).See e.g., N. Kosterina, Dnevnik(Moscow, 1964); O. Berggol, ts, ,Bezumstvo predannosti: iz dnevnikov Ol, gi Berggol, ts, , Vremia i my, 1980, no. 57, pp. 270–85; A. Mar, ian, Gody moi, kak soldaty: dnevnik sel, skogo aktivista, 1925–1953 gg.(Kishinev, 1987); M. Prishvin, Dnevniki(Moscow, 1990); E. Bulgakova, Dnevnik Eleny Bulgakovoi(Moscow, 1990); N. Vishniakova, Dnevnik Niny Vishniakovoi(Sverdlovsk, 1990).

(12).See e.g. V. Vernadskii, ,Dnevnik 1938 goda, , Druzhba narodov, 1992, no. 2, pp. 219–39; no. 3, pp. 241–69; same author, ,Dnevnik 1939 goda, , Druzhba narodov, 1993, nos. 11/12, pp. 3–41; A. Solov, ev, Tetradi krasnogo professora(1912–1941 gg.), Neizvestnaia Rossiia. XX vek, vol. 4(Moscow, 1993), pp. 140–228; , ,,Ischez chelovek i net ego, kuda devalsia – nikto ne znaet,, : iz konfiskovannogo dnevnika,, Istochnik, 1993, no. 4, pp. 46–62; Golgofa. Po materialam arkhivno-sledstvennogo dela no. 603 na Sokolovu-Piatnitskuiu Iu. I., ed. V. I. Piatnitskii(St Petersburg, 1993); A. Afinogenov, ,Dnevnik 1937 goda, , Sovremennaia dramaturgiia, 1993, no. 1, pp. 219–33; no. 2, pp. 223–41; no. 3, pp. 217–39; K. Chukovskii, Dnevnik 1930–1969(Moscow, 1994); M. Prishvin, , ,,Zhizn, stala veselei . . .,, : iz dnevnika 1936 goda, , Oktiabr, , 1993, no. 10, pp. 3–21; same author, ,Dnevnik 1937 goda, , Oktiabr, , 1994, no. 11, pp. 144–71; 1995, no. 9, pp. 155–71; M. Prishvin and V. Prishvin, My s toboi: dnevnik liubvi(Moscow, 1996); A. Kopenin, ,Zapiski nesumashedshego: iz dnevnika sel, skogo uchitelia, , Rodina, 1996, no. 2, pp. 17–29; Dnevnye zapiski ust, -kulomskogo krest, ianina I. S. Rassukhaeva(1902–1953)(Moscow, 1997); M. Krotova, Bavykinskii dnevnik: vospominaniia shkol, nogo pedagoga(Moscow, 1998); A. Tsember, Dnevnik(Moscow, 1997); V. Sitnikov, Perezhitoe: dnevnik saratovskogo obyvatelia 1918–1931 gg.(Moscow, 1999); E. Filipovich, Ot sovetskoi pionerki do cheloveka-pensionerki: moi dnevniki(Podol, sk, 2000); A. Man, kov, Dnevniki tridtsatykh godov(St Petersburg, 2001); Iu. Nagibin, Dnevnik(Moscow, 2001); N. Lugovskaya, I Want to Live: The Diary of a Soviet Schoolgirl 1932–1937(Moscow, 2003); M. Shirshova, Zabytyi dnevnik poliarnogo biologa(Moscow, 2003). Extracts from ten diaries were published in translation in V. Garros, N. Korenevskaya and T. Lahusen(eds.), Intimacy and Terror: Soviet Diaries of the 1930s(New York, 1995).

(13).历史学家赫尔贝克(Jochen Hellbeck)率先投入对20世纪30年代苏维埃日记的研究,特别是关于Stepan Podlubny的,载于赫尔贝克所编的Tagebuch aus Moskau, 1931–1939(Munich, 1996)。另可参见赫尔贝克对20世纪30年代4本苏维埃日记的讨论,载于Revolution on My Mind: Writing a Diary Under Stalin(Cambridge, Mass., 2006)。赫尔贝克富有争议的见解是,20世纪30年代苏维埃公民的思维全部遵照苏维埃的模式,没有替代的概念,并在日记中尝试清除所有非苏维埃的个性元素(所谓的“自身危机”),以蜕变成苏维埃新人。另可参见:J. Hellbeck, ,Self-Realization in the Stalinist System: Two Soviet Diaries of the 1930s, , in M. Hildermeier(ed.), Stalinismus vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg: neue Wege der Forschung(Munich, 1998), pp. 275–90. 赫尔贝克的观点受到了其他学者的严厉批评,特别是A. Etkind的,Soviet Subjectivity: Torture for the Sake of Salvation?,[Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, vol. 6, no. 1(Winter 2005), pp. 171–86],以及S. Boym的,Analiz praktiki sub, ektivizatsii v rannestalinskom obshchestve, [Ab Imperio, 2002, no. 3, pp. 209–418]。

(14).See e.g. J. Hellbeck, ,Fashioning the Stalinist Soul: The Diary of Stepan Podlubnyi(1931–1939),, Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, 44(1996), pp. 344–73; I. Halfin and J. Hellbeck, ,Rethinking the Stalinist Subject: Stephen Kotkin, s ,,Magnetic Mountain,, and the State of Soviet Historical Studies,, Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, 44(1996), pp. 456–63; I. Halfin, Terror in My Soul: Communist Autobiographies on Trial(Cambridge, Mass., 2003); C. Kaier and E. Naiman(eds.), Everyday Life in Early Soviet Russia: Taking the Revolution Inside(Bloomington, 2006).

(15).这是赫尔贝克的主要观点(参见他的上述著作)。

(16).MP, f. 4, op. 18, d. 2, ll. 49–50.

(17).特别参见Catherine Merridale的两本书:Night of Stone: Death and Memory in Russia(London, 2000) 和 Ivan, s War: The Red Army 1939–1945(London, 2005)。这两本书都在一定程度上基于采访得来的资料。

(18).See e.g. Golos krest, ian: Sel, skaia Rossiia XX veka v krest, ianskikh memuarakh(Moscow, 1996); Sud, ba liudei: Rossiia xx vek. Biografii semei kak ob, ekt sotsiologicheskogo issledovaniia(Moscow, 1996); D. Bertaux, P. Thompson and A. Rotkirch(eds.), On Living through Soviet Russia(London, 2004); V. Skultans, The Testimony of Lives: Narrative and Memory in Post-Soviet Latvia(London, 1998); A. Shternshis, Soviet and Kosher: Jewish Popular Culture in the Soviet Union, 1923–1939(Bloomington, 2006). Many books have drawn from interviews, among them notably: N. Adler, Beyond the Soviet System: The Gulag Survivor(New Brunswick, 2002); A. Applebaum, Gulag: A History of the Soviet Camps(London, 2003).

(19).第一次重要的口述历史是针对苏维埃社会制度的哈佛项目(从1950到1951年,分别在欧洲和美国采访了329名苏维埃难民)。大多数受访者在1943到1946年之间离开苏联,有了在西方生活的经历,其见解是自觉反苏的,遂不能代表全体苏维埃人。然而,该项目出版了好几本社会学著作,深深影响了冷战时期西方对苏维埃社会的认识,分别是:R. Bauer, A. Inkeles和C. Klukhohn合著的How the Soviet System Works: Cultural, Psychological and Cultural Themes(Cambridge, Mass., 1957),J. Berliner的Factory and Manager in the USSR(Cambridge, Mass., 1958),M. Field的Doctor and Patient in Soviet Russia(Cambridge, Mass., 1958),以及A. Inkeles和R. Bauer合著的The Soviet Citizen: Daily Life in a Totalitarian Society(Cambridge, Mass., 1959)。特别是最后一本,专论“苏联社会如何影响个人,个人又如何适应苏维埃生活的日常规范”(第3页)。20世纪90年代初出现了两组人士,专以社会学方法从事口述历史的研究。第一组是Daniel Bertaux和Paul Thompson,其研究成果发表于Sud, ba liudei 和 On Living Through Soviet Russia。第二组是莫斯科社会和经济学院,其研究成果见于Golos krest,ian。此外,纪念学会(http://www.memo.ru)率先投入了古拉格口述历史研究。当然,无可置疑的是,第一部伟大的口述历史著作是亚历山大·索尔仁尼琴的《古拉格群岛》,共3卷(伦敦,1974-1978年),其内容主要依据对劳改营幸存者的采访。

第一章 1917年的孩子(1917—1928)

(20).RGALI, f. 3084, op. 1, d. 1389, l. 17; f. 2804, op. 1, d. 45.

(21).E. Drabkina, Chernye sukhari(Moscow, 1975), pp. 82–3.

(22).S. Sebag Montefiore, Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar(London, 2003), p. 61.

(23).RGALI, f. 2804, op. 1, d. 22, l. 4; f. 3084, op. 1, d. 1389, l. 3; Drabkina, Chernye sukhari, pp. 23–9; N. Burenin, Pamiatnye gody: vospominaniia(Leningrad, 1961), pp. 150–51.

(24).Partiinaia etika: dokumenty i materialy diskussii dvadtsatykh godov(Moscow, 1989), p. 16; M. Gorky, Untimely Thoughts: Essays on Revolution, Culture and the Bolsheviks, 1917–18(London, 1970), p. 7.

(25).Cited in E. Naiman, Sex in Public: The Incarnation of Early Soviet Ideology(Princeton, 1997), pp. 91–2.

(26).RGALI, f. 2804, op. 1, dd. 22, 40, 1389; V. Erashov, Kak molniia v nochi(Moscow, 1988), p. 344.

(27).O. Figes, A People, s Tragedy: The Russian Revolution, 1891–1924(London, 1996), pp. 752–68.

(28).I. Stalin, Sochineniia, 13 vols.(Moscow, 1946–55), vol. 6, p. 248.

(29).K. Geiger, The Family in Soviet Russia(Cambridge, Mass., 1968), p. 61.

(30).L. Kirschenbaum, Small Comrades: Revolutionizing Childhood in Soviet Russia, 1917–1932(New York, 2001), p. 48.

(31).O. Maitich, ,Utopia in Daily Life, , in J. Bowlt and O. Maitich(eds.), Laboratory of Dreams: The Russian Avant-garde and Cultural Experiment(Stanford, 1996), pp. 65–6; V. Buchli, An Archaeology of Socialism(Oxford, 1999), pp. 65–8.

(32).W. Goldman, Women, the State and Revolution: Soviet Family Policy and Social Life, 1917–1936(Cambridge, 1993), p. 107; N. Lebina, Povsednevnaia zhizn, sovetskogo goroda: normy i anomalii, 1920–1930 gody(St Petersburg, 1999), p. 272.

(33).I. Halfin, ,Intimacy in an Ideological Key: The Communist Case of the 1920s and 1930s, , in same author(ed.), Language and Revolution: Making Modern Political Identities(London, 2002), pp. 187–8.

(34).L. Trotsky, Problems of Everyday Life: Creating the Foundations of a New Society in Revolutionary Russia(London, 1973), p. 72; A. Inkeles and R. Bauer, The Soviet Citizen: Daily Life in a Totalitarian Society(Cambridge, Mass., 1959), p. 205.

(35).Trotsky, Problems of Everyday Life, p. 48.

(36).MSP, f. 3, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 2, 7, 46–62.

(37).See O. Figes, Natasha, s Dance: A Cultural History of Russia(London, 2002), pp. 119–30.

(38).MSP, f. 3, op. 18, d. 2, ll. 24, 26.

(39).MSP, f. 3, op. 12, d. 2, l. 15.

(40).E. Bonner, Mothers and Daughters(London, 1992), pp. 40, 46, 61–2, 101.

(41).Buchli, An Archaeology of Socialism, p. 131.

(42).V. Maiakovskii, Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, 13 vols.(Moscow, 1955–61), vol. 2, pp. 74–5.

(43).V. Dunham, In Stalin, s Time: Middle-Class Values in Soviet Fiction(Durham, 1990), p. 64 (为求清晰,译文略有调整).

(44).W. Rosenberg(ed.), Bolshevik Visions: First Phase of the Cultural Revolution in Soviet Russia, 2 vols.(Ann Arbor, 1990), vol. 1, p. 37(为求清晰,译文略有调整).

(45).MM, f. 1, op. 1, dd. 167, 169; f. 12, op. 27, d. 2, ll. 47–54.

(46).MSP, f. 3, op. 47, d. 2, ll. 32–3, 59–64; d. 3, ll. 1–6; L. El, iashova, My ukhodim, my ostaemsia. Kniga 1: Dedy, ottsy(St Petersburg, 2001), pp. 191–4.

(47).OR RNB, f. 1156, d. 597, ll. 3, 14; IISH, Vojtinskij, No. 11(Box 3, file 5/b); VOFA, A. Levidova,,Vospominaniia, , ms., p. 11; interview with Ada Levidova, St Petersburg, May 2004.

(48).OR RNB, f. 1156, d. 576, ll. 4, 12–19; d. 577, l. 1; d. 597, l. 51; VOFA, A. Levidova, ,Vospominaniia, , ms., p. 12.

(49).V. Zenzinov, Deserted: The Story of the Children Abandoned in Soviet Russia(London, 1931), p. 27.

(50).A. Lunacharskii, O narodnom obrazovanii(Moscow, 1948), p. 445.

(51).E. M. Balashov, Shkola v rossiiskom obshchestve 1917–1927 gg. Stanovlenie ,novogo cheloveka, (St Petersburg, 2003), p. 33; J. Ceton, School en kind in Sowjet-Rusland(Amsterdam, 1921), p. 3. 关于幼儿园的工作和游戏,参见:L. Kirschenbaum, Small Comrades: Revolutionizing Childhood in Soviet Russia, 1917–32(New York, 2001), pp. 120–23。

(52).MP, f. 4, op. 18, d. 2, ll. 1–2; RGAE, f. 9455, op. 2, d. 154; L. Holmes, ,Part of History: The Oral Record and Moscow, s Model School No. 25, 1931–1937, , Slavic Review, 56(Summer 1997), pp. 281–3; S. Fitzpatrick, Education and Social Mobility in the Soviet Union 1921–1934(Cambridge, 1979), p. 27; SFA, I. Slavina, ,Tonen, kii nerv istorii, , ms., p. 16.

(53).RGAE, f. 9455, op. 2, d. 30, ll. 241–56; d. 51, ll. 113–14; d. 154, ll. 47–8.

(54).RGAE, f. 9455, op. 2, d. 154, l. 397; d. 155, ll. 5, 8, 9, 15; d. 156, ll. 11–12, 171; d.157, ll. 98–103.

(55).R. Berg, Sukhovei: vospominaniia genetika(Moscow, 2003), p. 29.

(56).A. Mar, ian, Gody moi, kak soldaty: dnevnik sel, skogo aktivista, 1925–1953 gg.(Kishinev, 1987), p. 17; E. Liusin, Pis, mo – vospominaniia o prozhitykh godakh(Kaluga, 2002), pp. 18–19. See further C. Kelly, ,Byt, Identity and Everyday Life, , in S. Franklin and E. Widdis(eds.), National Identity in Russian Culture: An Introduction(Cambridge, 2004), pp. 157–67.

(57).Balashov, Shkola v rossiiskom obshchestve, p. 137.

(58).MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, ll. 8–9; op. 14, d. 3, ll. 24–6; MP, f. 4, op. 24, d. 2, ll. 41–2; op. 3, d. 2, l. 24; V. Frid, 58?: zapiski lagernogo pridurka(Moscow, 1996), p. 89.

(59).MSP, f. 3, op. 8, d. 2, ll. 1, 7; MP, f. 4, op. 9, d. 2, ll. 11–12.

(60).C. Kelly, ,Shaping the ,,Future Race,, : Regulating the Daily Life of Children in Early Soviet Russia, , in C. Kaier and E. Naiman(eds.), Everyday Life in Early Soviet Russia: Taking the Revolution Inside(Bloomington, 2006), p. 262; Rosenberg, Bolshevik Visions, vol. 2, p. 86; MP, f. 4, op. 24, d. 2, l. 43.

(61).Interview with Vasily Romashkin, Norilsk, July 2004.

(62).Interview with Ida Slavina, Cologne, June 2003.

(63).MSP, f. 3, op. 17, d. 2, l. 8.

(64).P. Kenez, The Birth of the Propaganda State: Soviet Methods of Mass Mobilization, 1917–1929(Cambridge, 1985), pp. 168–9.

(65).N. Vishniakova, Dnevnik Niny Vishniakovy(Sverdlovsk, 1990), pp. 28–9.

(66).E. Dolmatovskii, Bylo: zapiski poeta(Moscow, 1982), pp. 22–3.

(67).V. Pirozhkova, Poteriannoe pokolenie(St Petersburg, 1998), pp. 46–7.

(68).Interview with Vasily Romashkin, Norilsk, July 2004; D. Hoffman, Stalinist Values: The Cultural Norms of Stalinist Modernity(Cornell, 2003), pp. 121–2.

(69).M. Baitalsky, Notebooks for the Grandchildren: Recollections of a Trotskyist Who Survived the Stalin Terror(New Jersey, 1995), pp. 56, 68, 71 (为求清晰,译文略有调整).

(70).Lebina, Povsednevnaia zhizn, , p. 274.

(71).Baitalsky, Notebooks for the Grandchildren, pp. 94–6, 161–2.

(72).Stalin, Sochineniia, vol. 6, p. 46; Partiinaia etika, p. 287.

(73).M. Rubinshtein, Sotsial, no-pravovye predstavleniia i samoupravleniia u detei(Moscow, 1925), pp. 69–70.

(74).Partiinaia etika, p. 329.

(75).O. Khakhordin, The Collective and the Individual in Russia: A Study of Practices(Berkeley, 1999), pp. 35–74, 212–28. 同理,“无产阶级觉悟”也需要证据,即在思想上对党的事业的承诺。光是出身于无产阶级还是不够的,因为很多工人阶级出身的人,养成了“小资产阶级”的心态。

(76).L. Schapiro, The Communist Party of the Soviet Union(London, 1970), p. 385.,

(77).See further I. Halfin, ,From Darkness to Light: Student Communist Autobiography DuringNEP, Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, 45(1997), pp. 210–36; same author, Terror in My Soul: Communist Autobiographies on Trial(Cambridge, Mass., 2003).

(78).Khakhordin, The Collective and the Individual in Russia, pp. 123–5.

(79).V. Kozlov, ,Denunciation and Its Functions in Soviet Governance,: A Study of Denunications and Their Bureaucratic Handling from Soviet Police Archives, 1944–1953, Journal of Modern History, 68(Decem, ber 1996), p. 867; C. Hooper, ,Terror from Within: Participation and Coercion in Soviet Power, 1924–6, 4(Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 2003), p. 13.

(80).XIV sezd VKP(b): stenograficheskii otchet(Moscow, 1926), p. 600.

(81).Ibid., p. 615.

(82).Bonner, Mothers and Daughters, p. 148.

(83).Partiinaia etika, p. 329.

(84).Interview with Elena Dombrovskaia, Moscow, January 2003.

(85).MSP, f. 3, op. 48, d. 2, ll. 1, 23, 32–4.

(86).MSP, f. 3, op. 42, d. 2, ll. 5–6.

(87).MP, f. 4, op. 9, d. 1, ll. 4–8; d. 2, l. 13.

(88).MP, f. 4, op. 12, d. 2, l. 7.

(89).Bonner, Mothers and Daughters, p. 17., , , ,

(90).V. Semenova, ,Babushki: semeinye i ,s otsialnye funktsii praroditelskogo pokoleniia, in Sudba liudei: Rossiia xx vek. Biografii semei kak obekt sotsiologicheskogo issledovaniia(Moscow, 1996), pp. 326–54.

(91).Bonner, Mothers and Daughters, pp. 14, 15, 16, 27, 40, 78, 145; interview with Elena Bonner, Boston, November 2006., ,

(92).GFA, O. Golovnia, ,Predislovie k pismam, ms., p. 20; interview with Yevgeniia Golovnia, Moscow, November 2004.

(93).Interview with Vladimir Fomin, St Petersburg, September 2003.,

(94).Interview with Yevgeniia Yevangulova, St Petersburg, March 2004; E. P. Evangulova, Krestnyi put(St Petersburg, 2000), pp. 7–9, 36; RGAE, f. 5208, op. 1, d. 28.

(95).Interview with Boris Gavrilov, St Pet,e rsburg, Ju,n e 2003.,

(96).,Obydennyi NEP(Sochineniia i pisma shkolnikov 20-x godov), in Neizvestnaia Rossia xx vek, vol.3(Moscow, 1993), pp. 285–7; HP,, ,5 9 A, vol. 5, ,p, . 25; Inkeles and Bauer, The Soviet ,C itizen, p. 216. See similarly, S. Tchouikina, ,The ,,Old and ,,New Intelligentsia and the Soviet State, in T. Vihavainen(ed.), The Soviet Union – A Popular State?(St Petersburg, 2003), pp. 99–100.

(97).Inkeles and Bauer, The Soviet Citizen, p. 223; MSP, f. 3, op. 52, d. 2, l. 19.

(98).E. Olitskaia, Moi vospominaniia, 2 vols.(Frankurt, 1971), vol. 2, p. 56; MP, f. 4, op. 8, d. 2, l. 6. See also, MM, f. 12, op. 31, d. 2, ll. 1–2; MS,P , f. 3, op. 53, d. 2, ll. 11–12; f. 3, op. 8, d. 2, ll. 1–7.

(99).Partiinaia etika, p. 437; Liusin, Pismo, p. 11; MP, f. 4, op. 32, d. 4, l. 7.

(100).Bonner, Mothers and Daughters, pp. 41, 138–9, 200–202.

(101).MSP, f. 3, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 3–4, 7.

(102).MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, ll. 13–15; I. Shikheeva-Gaister, Semeinaia khronika vremen kul’ta lichnosti: 1925–1953(Moscow, 1998), pp. 5–6.,

(103).V. Danilov, Sovetskaia dokolkhoznaia derevnia: naselenie, zemlepolzovanie, khoziaistvo(Moscow, 1977), p. 31.

(104).MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 3, ll. 34–5.

(105).与农民革命相关内容,参见:O. Figes, Peasant Russia, Civil War: The Volga Countryside in Revolution, 1917–1921(Oxford, 1989)。

(106).MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 3, ll. 8, 104; G. Dobronozhenko, Kollektivizatsiia na Severe, 1929–1932(Syktyvkar, 1994), pp. 27–8.

(107).MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 3, ll. 7–8.

(108).MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, ll. 18, 69.

(109).MSP, f. 3, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 20, 43–5.,

(110).VFA, E. Vittenburg, ,Pamiati P. V. Vittenburga, ms., p. 4; interviews with Yevgeniia Vittenburg, St Petersburg, August 2003, September 2004; E. Vittenburg, Vremia poliarnykh stran(St Petersburg, 2002), pp. 44–74.

(111).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 351, l. 3; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003.

(112).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2613, ll. 7, 13; K. Simonov, Segodnia i davno(Moscow, 1978), p. 65. Family legend has it that Aleksandra blamed Mikhail for the miscarriage of a baby daughter and decided to leave him(interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, June 2003).

(113).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 360; op. 9, d. 2613, ll. 3, 13.

(114).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2698, l. 1.

(115).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 360, l. 31.

(116).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 353, l. 38; d. 337, l. 7.

(117).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 339, l. 11; op. 9, d. 1534, l. 31.

(118).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 6, d. 70, l. 103; d. 170, l. 17; op. 9, d. 2613, l. 13; dd. 23, 24.

(119).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1533, l. 18; d. 24, l. 16; d. 25, ll. 6, 17, 26; d. 1010, ll. 9–10; Simonov, Segodnia i davno, p. 66.

(120).K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia(Moscow, 1990), pp. 25–6.

(121).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 25, l. 12; d. 1010, ll. 16–19; op. 10, d. 339, l. 11.

(122).SLFA, M. Laskin, ,Vospominaniia, , ms., p. 2.

(123).SLFA, ,Lichnyi listok po uchety kadrov, (Samuil Laskin); interviews with Fania Laskina, Moscow, November 2003, March 2005.

(124).A. Ball, Russia, s Last Capitalists: The NEPmen 1921–1929(Berkeley, 1987), p. 39.

(125).Interviews with Fania Laskina, Moscow, June, November 2003, February, July 2004; interviews with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; SLFA,M. Laskin, ,Vospominaniia, , ms., pp. 20, 21, 29.

(126).Y. Slezkine, The Jewish Century(Berkeley, 2005), p. 217; Vsesoiuznaia perepis, naseleniia. 1937 g. Kratkie itogi(Moscow, 1991), p. 90.

(127).A. Shternshis, Soviet and Kosher: Jewish Popular Culture in the Soviet Union, 1923–1939(Bloomington, 2006), pp. 35–43; J. Veidlinger, The Moscow State Yiddish Theatre: Jewish Culture on the Soviet Stage(Bloomington, 2000).

(128).Interviews with Fania Laskina, Moscow, June, November 2003; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; SLFA, M. Laskin, ,Vospominaniia, , p. 19.

(129).Interview with Rebekka(Rita) Kogan, St Petersburg, May 2003.

(130).I. Slavin, Protsess v Novikakh(Vitebsk, 1920).

(131).SFA, I. Slavina, ,Tonen, kii nerv istorii, , ms., p. 11; interview with Ida Slavina, Cologne, October 2003.

(132).Interview with Fania Laskina, Moscow, March 2005.

(133).A. Barmine, One Who Survived: The Life Story of a Russian Under the Soviets(New York, 1945), pp. 124–5; H. Kuromiya, Stalin, s Industrial Revolution: Politics and Workers, 1928–1932(Cambridge, 1988), p. 110; RGAE, f. 9455, op. 2, d. 157, l. 183.

(134).V. Danilov, ,Vvedenie: sovetskaia derevnia v gody ,,Bol, shogo terrora,, , , in Tragediia sovetskoi derevni: kollektivizatsiia i raskulachivanie. Dokumenty i materialy v 5 tomakh 1927–1939, 5vols.(Moscow,1999–2004), vol.5:1937–1939, Part1,1937,p.9;A. Meyer, ,The War Scare of 1927, , Soviet Union/Union Soviétique, vol. 5, no. 1(1978), pp. 1–25; S. Fitzpatrick, ,The Foreign Threat During the First Five Year Plan, , Soviet Union/Union Soviétique, vol. 5, no. 1(1978), pp. 26–35; Stalin, Sochineniia, vol. 11, pp. 170–72.

(135).R. Davies, The Industrialization of Soviet Russia 3: The Soviet Economy in Turmoil, 1929–1930(London, 1989), p. 76; Ball, Russia, s Last Capitalists, pp. 76–7.

(136).SLFA, ,Lichnyi listok po uchety kadrov, (Samuil Laskin); interviews with Fania Laskina, Moscow, November 2003, March 2005.

(137).N. Mandelstam, Hope Abandoned(London, 1989), p. 551.

第二章 大转变(1928—1932)

(138).MSP, f.3, op.14, d.2, l.38; d.3, l.10.

(139).AFSBVO, Arkhivno-sledstvennoe delo N.A.Golovina.

(140).MSP, f.3, op.14, d.2, ll.102–4.

(141).MSP, f.3, op.14, d.2, l.93.

(142).AFSBVO, Arkhivno-sledstvennoe delo N.A.Golovina; MSP, f.3, op.14, d.2, l.69; d.3, ll.7–8.

(143).GAVO, f.407, op.1, d.98, l.7.

(144).AFSBVO, Arkhivno-sledstvennoe delo N.A.Golovina; MSP, f.3, op.14, d.3, l.9.

(145).AFSBVO, Arkhivno-sledstvennoe delo N.A.Golovina.

(146).MSP, f.3, op.14, d.3, l.11.

(147).Tragediia sovetskoi derevni: kollektivizatsiia i raskulachivanie.Dokumenty i materialy , 5 vols.(Moscow,1999–2004), vol.1, pp.36, 148–50, 228–30, 742; Izvestiia TsK KPSS , 1991,

(148).Cited in M.Lewin, Russian Peasants and Soviet Power: A Study of Collectivization (London, 1968), p.257.

(149).R.Davies, The Soviet Economy in Turmoil, 1929–30(London, 1989), pp.198–9; Pravda , 1 September,10 November, 1929.

(150).Pravda , 7November1929; I.Stalin, Sochineniia , 13vols.(Moscow,1946–55), vol.12, p.174.

(151).R.Davies, The Socialist Offensive: The Collectivization of Soviet Agriculture, 1929–1930 (London,1980), p.111; Tragediia sovetskoi derevni , vol.1, pp.702–10, 716–27; M.Hindus,

(152).Davies, The Socialist Offensive , p.218; V.Kravchenko, I Chose Freedom(New York, 1946), p.91.

(153).M.Vareikis, ,O partiinom rukovodstve kolkhozam, , Na agrarnom fronte , 1929, no.8, p.65; Izvestiia , 19 April 1930; GARK, f.3, op.1, d.2309, l.6.

(154).Davies, The Socialist Offensive , p.198.

(155).M.Fainsod, Smolensk Under Soviet Rule(Cambridge, Mass., 1958), p.250.

(156).R.Conquest, The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine (London, 1986),pp.120–21; S.Fitzpatrick, Stalin , s Peasants: Resistance and Survival in the Russi

(157).GAVO, f.22, op.1, d.37, l.41; GARK, f.136, op.1, d.121, l.153; MSP, f.3, op.14, d.3, l.75; Tragediia sovetskoi derevni , vol.3, pp.66–8.

(158).MP, f.4, op.18, d.2, l.44.

(159).Conquest, Harvest of Sorrow, p.137; Tragediia sovetskoi derevni , vol.3, p.15; Lewin, Russian Peasants and Soviet Power , p.508.

(160).MP, f.4, op.18, d.5, l.15.

(161).MP, f.4, op.7, d.2, l.39.

(162).MP, f.4, op.5, d.2, l.30.

(163).VFA, ,Vospominaniia, , ms., p.8; Komsomol, skaia pravda , 8 September 1989, p.2.

(164).LFA, ,Roditeli, , p.24.

(165).A.Zverev, Zapiski ministra (Moscow, 1973), p.54.

(166).L.Kopelev, The Education of a True Believer (London, 1981), p.235.

(167).Tragediia sovetskoi derevni , vol.1, pp.8–9; R.Davies and S.Wheatcroft, The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture, 1931–1933(London, 2004), p.451.

(168).Davies, The Socialist Offensive , pp.442–3; Tragediia sovetskoi derevni , vol.3, pp.8–9; Davies and Wheatcroft, The Years of Hunger , pp.31, 37; Politbiuro i krest, ianstvo: vysylk

(169).AFSBVO, Arkhivno-sledstvennoe delo N.A.Golovina; MSP, f.3, op.14, d.2, ll.82–101, 122–3; d.3, ll.11,56–8.

(170).Hindus, Red Bread , p.142.

(171).E.Foteeva, ,Coping with Revolution: The Experience of Well-to-do Russian Families, , in D.Bertaux, P.Thompson and A.Rotkirch(eds.), On Living through Soviet Russia(London, 2004),

(172).Interviews with Olga Ramenskaia(neée Zapregaeva) and Galina Petrova, Strugi Krasnye(Pskov oblast), August 2003.

(173).RGAE, f.7486, op.37, d.101, ll.61–2; M.Tauger, ,The 1932 Harvest and the Soviet Famine of 1932–33, ,Slavic Review , vol.50, no.1(Spring 1991); Davies and Wheatcroft, The Years of

(174).For the link between the famine and the introduction of the passport system, in December 1932, see RGASPI, f.81, op.3, d.93, ll.24–5; f.558, op.11, d.45, l.109.

(175).Fitzpatrick, Stalin, s Peasants , p.80; Conquest, Harvest of Sorrow, p.237.

(176).G.Kessler, ,The Passport System and State Control over Population Flows in the Soviet Union,1932–1940, , Cahiers du Monde Russe , vol.42, nos.2–4(2001), pp.477–504; D.Shearer, ,

(177).Tragediia sovetskoi derevni , vol.3,p.63; A.Applebaum, Gulag: AHistory of the SovietCamps(London,2003), p.333; GARF, f.5207, op.3, d.49, l.190; f.8131, op.37, d.137, l.4.

(178).L.Viola, ,Tear the Evil From the Root: The Children of Spetspereselentsy of the North, , in N.Baschmakoff and P.Fryer(eds.), Modernization of the Russian Provinces, special issue o

(179).MSP, f.3, op.14, d.2, ll.25–6; d.3, ll.12–18, 125.

(180).MP, f.4, op.18, d.2; d.5, ll.16–17.

(181).MP, f.4, op.5, d.2, ll.37, 38.

(182).Politbiuro i krest, ianstvo, pp.467–553; Viola, The Unknown Gulag , p.232.

(183).MP, f.4, op.9, d.5, ll.2–7.

(184).AMILO, M.A.Solomonik, ,Zapiski raskulachennoi, , ts., pp.7–34.

(185).Pravda , 7 November 1929.

(186).AFA, A.M.Alekseyev, ,Vospominaniia, , p.18.

(187).See e.g.GARF, f.9414, op.1, d.368, l.115.另可参考曾于1954—1957年担任诺里尔斯克采矿综合企业主管的Aleksei Loginov的事后评论,见于:A.Macqueen, ,Survivors, , Granta , 64(Winter 1998)

(188).关于古拉格制度的经典政治解释,参见:R.Conquest, The Great Terror: A Reassessment(London,1992), 以及同一作者的Kolyma: The Arctic Death Camps(New York, 1978)。强调经济解释的则有:M

(189).Sistema ispravitel, no-trudovykh lagerei v SSSR, 1923–1960.Spravochnik (Moscow, 1998), p.395;Applebaum, Gulag, pp.31–40.

(190).GARF, f.5446, op.11a, d.555, l.32; RGASPI, f.17, op.3, d.746, l.11; Sistema ispravitel, no-trudovykh lagerei v SSSR , p.38.

(191).GARF, f.9414, op.1, d.2920, l.178; Applebaum, Gulag , pp.62–5; C.Joyce, ,The Gulag in Karelia,1929–41, , in Gregory and Lazarev(eds.), The Economics of Forced Labor , p.166; N.Ba

(192).MSP, f.3, op.19, d.2, ll.1–4.

(193).GARF, f.5515, op.33, d.11, ll.39–40; GASO, f.148, op.5, d.26, l.75.

(194).GARF, f.9414, op.1, d.3048, ll.25–36; V.Shalamov, Vishera: antiroman(Moscow, 1989), p.23.

(195).D.Nordlander, ,Magadan and the Economic History of the Dalstroi in the 1930s, , in Gregory and Lazarev(eds.), The Economics of Forced Labor , p.110.

(196).V.Shalamov, Kolyma Tales(London, 1994), pp.368–9.沙拉莫夫于1937年抵达科雷马,他所写的有关别尔津时期的故事,多取材于劳改营中的传闻。

(197).MP, f.4, op.10, d.1, ll.1–4, 14–17.

(198).A.Barmine, One Who Survived: The Life Story of a Russian Under the Soviets(New York, 1945), p.196.

(199).C.Ward, Stalin, s Russia(London, 1999), p.56; A.Smith, I Was a Soviet Worker(London, 1937), p.43.

(200).Interviews with Lydia Pukhova, St Petersburg, May, October 2004.

(201).MSP, f.3, op.14, d.2, ll.23–4, 26, 29; d.3, ll.20, 63–70.

(202).Y.Druzhnikov, Informer 001: The Myth of Pavlik Morozov(London, 1997), pp.45–6, 155–6; C.Kelly,Comrade Pavlik: The Rise and Fall of a Soviet Boy Hero(London, 2005), p.66.

(203).Druzhnikov, Informer , pp.19–20, 30–31, 42, 114, 152; Kelly, Comrade, pp.13, 94.查阅过秘密警察档案的Kelly,怀疑莫罗佐夫审判是否真有发生。在她看来,帕夫利克的举报全是警察和媒体所捏造

(204).Kelly, Comrade, pp.26–72.

(205).Druzhnikov, Informer , pp.9–11; Kelly, Comrade, p.14.

(206).Kelly, Comrade, p.156 (为求清晰,译文略有调整).

(207).See ibid., pp.22, 26–9, 169–71.

(208).M.Nikolaev, Detdom(New York, 1985), p.89.

(209).V.Danilov, Sovetskaia dokolkhoznaia derevnia: naselenie, zemlepol , zovanie, khoziaistvo (Moscow,1977), p.25; P.Kenez, The Birth of the Propaganda State: Soviet Methods of Mass Mob

(210).Interviews with Nina Gribelnaia, St Petersburg, March, June, October 2004; AFSBTO, Arkhivnosledstvennoe delo F.Z.Medvedeva.

(211).Conquest, Harvest of Sorrow, p.295; Fitzpatrick, Stalin, s Peasants , p.256.

(212).Vskhody kommuny , 19 December 1932; K.Geiger, The Family in Soviet Russia (Cambridge, Mass.,1968), p.308 (为求清晰,译文略有调整).

(213).A.Mar, ian, Gody moi, kak soldaty: dnevnik sel, skogo aktivista, 1925–53 (Kishinev, 1987), pp.55, 71,78–9.

(214).Cited in Geiger, The Family in Soviet Russia , p.140.

(215).A.Shternshis, Soviet and Kosher: Jewish Popular Culture, 1923–1939(Bloomington, 2006), p.61.感谢A.Shternshis向我提供了她采访索菲亚的资料。

(216).V.Baevskii, ,Syn kulaka i vrag naroda: A.T.Tvardovskii v Smolenske v 1937 g., , in Stalinizm v rossiiskoi provinstii: smolenskie arkhivnye dokumenty v pochtenii zarubezhnykh i rossii

(217).Istoriia sovetskoi politicheskoi tsenzury(Moscow, 1997), p.109; Baevskii, ,Syn kulaka, , pp.255–8.

(218).I.Tvardovskii, ,Stranitsy perezhitogo, , Iunost, , 1988, no.3, pp.14, 18.

(219).Ibid., p.23.

(220).Ibid., p.26.

(221).Ibid., p.27.

(222).E.Iaroslavskii(ed.), Kak provodit, chistku partii (Moscow, 1929), p.10.

(223).See S.Fitzpatrick, ,The Problem of Class Identity in NEP Society, , in S.Fitzpatrick, A.Rabinowitch and R.Stites(eds.), Russia in the Era of NEP: Explorations in Soviet Society and

(224).G.Alexopoulos, ,Portrait of a Con Artist as a Soviet Man, , Slavic Review, vol.57, no.4(Winter 1998),pp.774–90.See further, S.Fitzpatrick, ,Making a Self for the Times: Impersonat

(225).E.Bonner, Mothers and Daughters(London, 1992), p.317.

(226).S.Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s(Oxford, 1999), pp.118–38.

(227).Geiger, The Family in Soviet Russia , pp.141–2.See further Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism , p.133.

(228).B.Engel and A.Posadskaya-Vanderbeck, A Revolution of their Own: Voices of Women in Soviet History(Boulder, 1997), pp.29–32(translation slightly altered for clarity).

(229).Geiger, The Family in Soviet Russia , p.143; N.Novak-Decker(ed.), Soviet Youth: Twelve Komsomol Histories(Munich, 1959), p.99.

(230).RGALI, f.1814, op.10, d.339, l.6.

(231).RGALI, f.1814, op.10, d.339, l.3.

(232).K.Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia(Moscow, 1990), pp.29–30.

(233).RGALI, f.1814, op.10, d.339, l.5.

(234).Simonov, Glazami cheloveka, p.32.

(235).Ibid., p.33.

(236).Ibid., pp.35–6.

(237).W.Leonhard, Child of the Revolution(London, 1957), p.143.

(238).J.Hellbeck, ,Fashioning the Stalinist Soul: The Diary of Stepan Podlubnyi(1931–1939), , Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, 44(1996), pp.350, 353–5 (为求清晰,译文略有调整

(239).MSP, f.3, op.14, d.3, l.22.

(240).MSP, f.3, op.14, d.2, l.31; d.3, ll.18–19.

(241).MSP, f.3, op.14, d.2, l.38.

(242).MSP, f.3, op.14, d.2, l.84.

(243).MSP, f.3, op.14, d.2, ll.119–20.

第三章 对幸福的追求(1932—1936)

(244).SLFA, letter from Fania and Sonia Laskina to Gavril Popov, 18 May 1990; M. Laskin, ,Vospominaniia,, ms., p. 31; interviews with Fania Laskina and Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, July 2004, March 2005.

(245).T. Colton, Moscow: Governing the Socialist Metropolis(Cambridge, Mass., 1995), pp. 214, 270ff.

(246).RGALI, f. 2772, op. 1, d. 93, l. 2; Colton, Moscow, pp. 280, 327.

(247).RGALI, f. 2772, op. 1, d. 6, l. 24; d. 87, l. 5.

(248).RGALI,, f. 2772, op. 1, d. 94, l. 55; D. Neutatz, Die Moskauer Metro: Von den ersten Planen bis zur Grossbaustelle des Stalinismus(1897–1935), Beitrage zur Geschichte Osteuropas 33(Vienna, 2001), pp. 173, 181–2; Colton, Moscow, p. 257; Pravda, 20 May 1935, p. 3.

(249).RGALI, f. 2772, op. 1, d. 97, ll. 17–18.

(250).RGALI, f. 2772, op. 1, d. 87, l. 87; d. 90, ll. 20–21; interview with Fania Laskina, Moscow, November 2003.

(251).E. Zaleski, Planning for Economic Growth in the Soviet Union, 1918–1932(Chapel Hill, 1971), p. 120; N. Lampert, The Technical Intelligentsia and the Soviet State: A Study of Soviet Managers and Technicians 1928–1935(London, 1979), p. 71; S. Fitzpatrick, Education and Social Mobility in the Soviet Union 1921–1934(Cambridge, 1979), pp. 199–200; R. Davies, The Soviet Economy in Turmoil, 1929–30(London, 1989), pp. 134–5.

(252).有关这些信件的抽样,可参见:Obshchestvo i vlast, 1930-e gody: povestvovanie v dokumentakh(Moscow, 1998) 和L. Siegelbaum和A. Sokolov所编的 Stalinism as a Way of Life: A Narrative in Documents(New Haven, 2000)。

(253).See L. Viola, Peasant Rebels Under Stalin: Collectivization and the Culture of Peasant Resistance(Oxford, 1996); same author, ,Popular Resistance in the Stalinist 1930s: Soliloquy of a Devil, s Advocate, , Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, vol. 1, no. 1(Winter 2000), pp. 45–69; J. Rossman, ,The Teikovo Cotton Workers, Strike of April 1932: Class, Gender and Identity Politics in Stalin, s Russia, , Russian Review, vol. 56, no. 1(January 1997), pp. 44–69.

(254).Interviews with Lev Molotkov, St Petersburg,May2003; Zinaida Belikova, St Petersburg, October 2003; MUFA, A. Golovanov, ,Tetradki, , ms., p. 16.

(255).TsKhDMO, f. 1, op. 23, d. 1265, l. 43.

(256).J. Arch Getty and O. Naumov, The Road to Terror: Stalin and the Self-Destruction of the Bolsheviks, 1932–1939(New Haven, 1999), pp. 52–4.

(257).Ibid., p. 126.

(258).S. Fitzpatrick, The Cultural Front: Power and Culture in Revolutionary Russia(Ithaca, 1992), pp. 160–61; same author, Education and Social Mobility, pp. 178, 246.

(259).A. Man, kov, Dnevniki tridtsatykh godov(St Petersburg, 2001), pp. 82–3.

(260).Stalinism as a Way of Life, pp. 124–5(为求清晰,译文略有调整).

(261).L. Trotsky, The Revolution Betrayed(New York, 1972), pp. 136, 138.

(262).J. Gronow, Caviar with Champagne: Common Luxury and the Ideals of the Good Life in Stalin, s Russia(Oxford, 2003), p. 36; Fitzpatrick, The Cultural Front, p. 224.

(263).RGASPI, f. 17, op. 120, d. 138, ll. 78–9.

(264).D. Hoffman, Stalinist Values: The Cultural Norms of Stalinist Modernity(Ithaca, 2003), pp. 126, 131; N. Timasheff, The Great Retreat: The Growth and Decline of Communism in Russia(New York, 1946), pp. 317–18. 在20世纪30年代,关于文明生活对意识形态的作用,参见:V.Volkov, ,The Concept of Kul, turnost, : Notes on the Stalinist Civilizing Process, , in S. Fitzpatrick(ed.), Stalinism: New Directions(London, 2000), pp. 210–30。

(265).L. Trotsky, Problems of Everyday Life: Creating the Foundations of a New Society in Revolutionary Russia(London, 1973), p. 98.

(266).K. Gerasimova, ,Public Privacy in the Soviet Communal Apartment, , in D. Crowley and S. Reid(eds.), Socialist Spaces: Sites of Everyday Life in the Eastern Bloc(Oxford, 2002), p. 210; V. Buchli, An Archaeology of Socialism(Oxford, 1999), p. 78.

(267).S. Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s(Oxford, 1999), pp. 150–55; K. Clark, The Soviet Novel: History as Ritual(Chicago, 1981), p. 115; J. Brooks, ,Revolutionary Lives: Public Identities in Pravda during the 1920s, , in S. White(ed.), New Directions in Soviet History(Cambridge, 1992), p. 34; Timasheff, The Great Retreat, pp. 199–200, 202; C. Kelly, Comrade Pavlik: The Rise and Fall of a Soviet Boy Hero(London, 2005), p. 158.

(268).Interview with Marina Ivanova, St Petersburg, March 2004.

(269).I. Shikheeva-Gaister, Semeinaia khronika vremen kul, ta lichnosti: 1925–1953(Moscow, 1998), pp. 15–17.

(270).J. Barber, ,The Worker, s Day: Time Distribution in Soviet Working-Class Families, 1923–36, 。这篇论文于1978年提交给了伯明翰大学的俄罗斯和东欧研究中心。

(271).Trotsky, The Revolution Betrayed, p. 156.

(272).MFA, L. Makhnach, ,Oskolki bylogo s vysoty nastoiashchego, , ms., pp. 2–5; interviews with Leonid Makhnach, Moscow, March, July 2004.

(273).MFA, L. Makhnach, ,Otets, , ms., pp. 2–4.

(274).MFA, Vladimir to Maria Makhnach, 29 November 1935.

(275).GFA, O. Golovnia, ,Predisloviia k pis, mam . . ., ms., pp. 3–4, 6, 12, 14, 47.

(276).GFA, O. Golovnia, ,Mezhdu kratovym i otdykhom, , ms., p. 1; ,Predisloviia k pis, mam . . ., , ms., p. 31; A. Golovnia, ,Dnevnik, ; interviews with Yevgeniia Golovnia, Moscow, March, July, October 2004.

(277).GFA, ,Predisloviia k pis, mam . . ., , ms., pp. 40–43, 58–61.

(278).Ibid., p. 51.

(279).E. Osokina, Za fasadom ,stalinskogo izobiliia, . Raspredelenie i rynok v snabzhenii naseleniia v gody industrializatsii, 1927–41(Moscow, 1998), pp. 128, 134; Man, kov, Dnevniki tridtsatykh godov, p. 272. See also Gronow, Caviar with Champagne, pp. 126–7.

(280).A. Ledeneva, Russia, s Economy of Favours: Blat, Networking and Informal Exchange(Cambridge, 1998); Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism, p. 63.

(281).Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism, p. 46.

(282).S. Kotkin, Magnetic Mountain: Stalinism as a Civilization(Berkeley, 1997), pp. 161, 171, 175–6, 477.

(283).N. Mandelstam, Hope Against Hope(London, 1989), p. 135.

(284).See e.g. MSP, f. 3, op. 36, d. 2, ll. 3–9.

(285).MSP, f. 3, op. 44, d. 2, l. 57.

(286).接下来的部分基于对37名20世纪30年代共用公寓中居民的采访,参见采访名单。

(287).K. Gerasimova, ,Public Privacy in the Soviet Communal Apartment, , p. 208; V. Semenova, ,Ravenstvo v nishchete: simvolicheskoe znachenie ,,kommunalok,, , , in Sud, ba liudei: Rossiia xx vek. Biografii semei kak ob, ekt sotsiologicheskogo issledovaniia(Moscow, 1996), p. 374.

(288).K. Gerasimova, ,Public Spaces in the Communal Apartment, , in G. Rittersporn, M. Rolfe and J. Behrends(eds.), Public Spheres in Soviet-Type Societies(Sonderdruck, 2003), p. 167; I. Utekhin, Ocherki kommunal, nogo byta(Moscow, 2001), pp. 148–9.

(289).Interviews with Aleksei Iurasovsky, Moscow, March, June 2005.

(290).P. Messana, Kommunalka. Une histoire de l, Union soviétique à travers l, appartement communautaire(Paris, 1995), pp. 16–17. See also R. Berg, Sukhovei. Vospominaniia genetika(Moscow, 2003), p. 140.

(291).SSEES, Pahl-Thompson Collection, E. V. Mamlin, pp. 1–7.

(292).Interview with Minora Novikova, Moscow, May 2005.

(293).Interview with Nina Paramonova, St Petersburg, June 2005.

(294).Interview with Ninel Reifshneider, Moscow, April 2005.

(295).MSP, f. 1, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 65–6; op. 23, d. 2, l. 93; Berg, Sukhovei, p. 141; interview with Elena Baigulova, St Petersburg, May 2005; SSEES, Pahl-Thompson Collection, E. V. Mamlin, p. 4.

(296).Gerasimova, ,Public Spaces, , pp. 185–6.

(297).Interview with Nina Paramonova, St Petersburg, June 2005.

(298).V. Semystiaha, ,The Role and Place of Secret Collaborators in the Informational Activity of the GPUNKVD in the 1920s and 1930s(on the Basis of Materials of the Donbass Region), , Cahiers du Monde Russe, vol. 42, nos. 2–4(2001), pp. 231–44. See also P. Holquist, , ,,Information is the Alpha andOmegaofOurWork,, : Bolshevik Surveillance in its Pan-European Context, , Journal of Modern History, 69(September 1997), pp. 415–50.

(299).Interview with Nina Paramonova, St Petersburg, June 2005; M. Baitalsky, Notebooks for the Grandchildren: Recollections of a Trotskyist Who Survived the Stalin Terror(New Jersey, 1995), p. 144.

(300).Interview with Natalia Grigoreva, St Petersburg, May 2005.

(301).Interview with anonymous, Moscow, March 2003.

(302).Interview with Yevgeniia Moiseyenko, St Petersburg, September 2005.

(303).Interview with Minora Novikova, Moscow, May 2005; SSEES, Pahl-Thompson Collection, G. E. Mamlina, p. 6.

(304).Interview with Nina Paramonova, St Petersburg, June 2005; interview with Yevgeniia Moiseyenko, St Petersburg, September 2005; MSP, f. 3, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 71–2.

(305).Gerasimova, ,Public Privacy, , p. 224.

(306).Interviews with Inna Shikheyeva(Gaister), Moscow, May 2005; Elizaveta Chechik, Moscow, April 2005; Minora Novikova, Moscow, May 2005; Maia Rodak, Moscow, October 2004; Tatiana Vasileva, St Petersburg, May 2005; Elena Baigulova, St Petersburg, May 2005.

(307).Interviews with Elizaveta Chechik, Moscow, April 2005; Inna Shikheyeva(Gaister), Moscow, May 2005; Minora Novikova, Moscow, May 2005; SSEES, Pahl-Thompson Collection, E. V. Gavrilova, pp. 6–7; G. E. Mamlina, p. 12; MSP, f. 3, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 64–5.

(308).SSEES, Pahl-Thompson Collection, A. A. Dobriakova, pp. 5–8.

(309).Interview with Aleksei Iurasovsky, Moscow, March 2005. See also E. A. Skriabina, Stranitsy zhizni(Moscow, 1994), p. 84.

(310).Interviews with Inna Shikheyeva(Gaister), Moscow, May 2005; Elizaveta Chechik, Moscow, April 2005; Minora Novikova, Moscow, May 2005; Maia Rodak, Moscow, October 2004; Tatiana Vasileva, St Petersburg, May 2005; SSEES, Pahl-Thompson Collection, E. V. Gavrilova, p. 7; E. V. Mamlin, p. 12.

(311).Utekhin, Ocherki, pp. 94–5, 151, 153, 166; interview with Galina Markelova, St Petersburg, June 2004. See also MM, f. 12, op. 7, d. 2, ll. 12–15; TsGASP, f. 7384, op. 42, d. 343, ll. 421–4.

(312).N. Lebina, Povsednevnaia zhizn, sovetskogo goroda: normy i anomalii, 1920–1930 gody(St Petersburg, 1999), p. 195; interview with Elizaveta Chechik, Moscow, April 2005.

(313).Interviews with Minora Novikova, Moscow, May 2005; Inna Shikheyeva(Gaister), Moscow, May 2005.

(314).K. Mannheim, Ideology and Utopia: An Introduction to the Sociology of Knowledge(London, 1991), pp. 184, 219. See also A. Kelly, ,In the Promised Land, , New York Review of Books, vol. 48, no. 19(29 November 2001), from which I have drawn for this paragraph.

(315).N. Patolichev, Ispytaniia na zrelost, (Moscow, 1977), p. 170.

(316).V. Petrov, Byt derevni v sochineniiakh shkol, nikov(Moscow, 1927); T. Egorov, Kem khotiat byt, nashi deti? Sbornik detskikh pisem dlia ottsov(Moscow and Leningrad, 1929); G. Petelin, Dadim slovo shkol, niku(Moscow, 1931).

(317).MSP, f. 3, op. 47, d. 2, l. 7.

(318).R. Orlova, Vospominaniia o neproshedshem vremeni(Ann Arbor, 1983), p. 30.

(319).Izvestiia, 14 July 1935, p. 2; A. Tertz, On Socialist Realism(New York, 1960), p. 78; Soviet Writers, Congress, 1934: The Debate of Socialist Realism and Modernism(London, 1977), p. 157; S. Fitzpatrick, The Cultural Front: Power and Culture in Revolutionary Russia(Ithaca, 1992), p. 217; W. Leonhard, Child of the Revolution(London, 1957), p. 22.

(320).N. Kaminskaya, Final Judgment: My Life as a Soviet Defence Attorney(New York, 1982), pp. 18–21.

(321).The Correspondence of Boris Pasternak and Olga Freidenberg, 1910–1954(New York, 1982), p. 154; N. Mandelstam, Hope Against Hope: A Memoir(London, 1989), p. 115.

(322).L. Kopelev, No Jail for Thought(London, 1975), pp. 11–13.

(323).Leonhard, Child of the Revolution, p. 81.

(324).D. Shearer, Social Disorder, Mass Repression and the NKVD During the 1930s, , Cahiers du Monde Russe, vol. 4,2, nos. 2–4(2001), pp. 505–34; P. Hagenloh, Socially Harmful Elements,, and the Great Terror, , in S. Fitzpatrick(ed.), Stalinism: New Directions(,,,London, 2000), pp. 286–308.

(325).RGALI, f. 1604, op. 1, d. 21, l. 32; A. Avdeenko, Otluchenie, , Znamiia, no. 3(1989), p. 11.

(326).C. Ruder, Making History for Stalin: The Story o,f the Belomor Canal(Gainesville, Fl., 1998), p. 50; G. Smith, D. S. Mirsky: A Russian-English Life, 1890–1939(Oxford, 2000), p. 209; Avdeenko, Otluchenie,, p. 18; Belomorsko-baltiiskii kanal imeni Stalina: istoriia stroitel, stva 1931–1934 gg.(Moscow, ,1934).

(327).A. Starkov, Mikhail Zoshchenko: sud, ba khudozhnika(Moscow, 1990), p. 139.

(328).S. and B. Webb, Soviet Communism: A New C, ivilization?, 2 vols.(London, 1935), vol. 2, p. 591; Ivan Chukhin, Kanal,o -armeitsy: istoriia stroitelstva Belomorkanala v dokumentakh, tsifrakh, faktakh, fotografiiakh, svidetelstvakh ychastnikov i ochevidtsev(Petrozavodsk, 1990), p. 37.

(329).Ruder, Making History,f o r Stalin, pp. 56–9.

(330).Avdeenko, ,Otluchenie, p. 8; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 944, ll. 6, 14.

(331).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 3, 39; d. 360, ll. 33, 35–6. On Simonov and Pudovkin: K. Simonov, ,O Vsevolode Illarionoviche Pudovkine, in Pudovkin v vospominaniiakh sovremennikov(Moscow, 1989), pp. 274–81.

(332).K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia(Moscow, 1990), pp. 39–41.

(333).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 360, l. 34; Simonov, Glazami, pp. 39, 41, 45.

(334).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 1, ll. 13–14, 60; d. 848, l. 5; op. 10, d. 360, ll. 34–5.

(335).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 339, l. 4.

(336).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 360, l. 36.

(337).RGALI, f. 632, op. 1, d. 1; d. 16, l,l. 5, 12.

(338).N. Tipot(Sokolova), ,Dnevnik, private archive.

(339).RGALI, f. 632, op. 1, d. 15, ll. 23–7; d. 16, ll. 7–8; f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2606, l. 6; op. 10, d. 339, l. 11; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003.

(340).L. Lazarev, Konstantin Simonov. Ocherk zhizni i tvorchestva(Moscow, 1985), pp. 18, 35; A. Karaganov, Konstantin Simonov vblizi i na rasstoianii(Moscow, 1987), pp. 9, 10; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 71.

(341).Simonov, Glazami, pp. 42–5; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 25, l. 13; d. 1010, ll. 16–19, 25.

(342).Simonov, Glazami, pp. 46–7.

(343).Ibid., pp. 48–9.

(344).Ibid., p. 47.

(345).TsGAIPD, f. 1278, op. ,1 , d. 439869, l. ,4 .

(346).SFA, I. Slavina, ,Tonenkii nerv istorii, ms., pp. 16–17, 30; interview with Ida Slavina, Cologne, September 2003.,

(347).I. Sl,a vin, Vredite, lstvo na fronte sovetskogo ugolovnogo prava(Moscow, 1931), p. 76; SFA, I. Slavina,,Put na plakhu, ms., p. 29., , ,

(348).I. Slavin, ,K voprosu o prinuditelnykh rabotakh bez soderzhaniia pod str, azhei, Ezhenedelnik sovetskoi iustitsii, 1922, no. 36; ,Proizvodstvennye tovarishcheskie sudi i revoliutsiia, Sovets,k oe gosudarstvo i pravo, 1931, no. 7; ,Nekotorye voprosy praktiki proizvodstvenno-tovarishcheskikh sudov, Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo, 1932, nos. 5–6.

(349).SPbF ARAN, f. 229, op. 1, d. 100, ll. 44–5.

(350).TsGAIPD, f. 1816, op. 2, d. 5095, l. 66., ,

(351).SPbF ARAN, f. 229, op. 1, d. 93, ll. 4, 6; d. 100, l. 67; d. 120, ll. 7–12; d. 122, ll. 6–10; SFA, ,Put na plakhu, pp. 79–81; interviews with Ida Slavina, Cologne, June, October, 2003; TsGAIPD, f. 563, op. 1, d. 1467, l. 117.,

(352).S. Wheatcroft, ,The Scale and Nature of German and Soviet Repression and Mass Killings, 1930–45, Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 48, no. 8(1996), pp. 1338–40.

(353).Interview with Yevgeniia Vittenburg, St Petersburg, August 2003; E. Vittenburg, Vremia poliarnykh stran(St Petersburg, 2002), p, p. 106–12.

(354).I. Flige, ,Osoblag Vaigach, Vestnik Memoriala, no. 6(St Petersburg, 2001), pp. 12–19.

(355).VFA, letter from Zinaida to Veronika and Valentina Vittenburg, 26 August 1933.

(356).Interview with Yevgeniia Vittenburg, St Petersburg, August 2003.

(357).Interview with Yevgeniia Vittenburg, St Petersburg, September 2004.

(358).VFA, ,Sotsdogovor ambulatornogo vracha sanotdela vaigachskoi ekspeditsii NKVD Vittenburg Z.I. ot 2 marta 1933, ; letter from Zinaida to Veronika and Valentina Vittenburg, undated [1935]; interview with Yevgeniia Vittenburg, St Petersburg, September 2004.

(359).Interviews with Yevgeniia Vittenburg, St Petersburg, August 2003, S,e ptember 2004; VFA, letter from Zinaida, to Yevgeniia Vittenburg, 3 November 1935; ,Dnevnik v pismakh P. V. Vittenburga docheri Evgenii, p. 54; Vittenburg, Vremia poliarnykh stran, p. 134.,

(360).VFA, letter from Pavel to, Yevgeniia Vittenburg, 13 September 1936; ,Dnevnik v pismakh P. V. Vittenburga docheri Evgenii, ms., p. 7.

(361).MM, f. 1, op. 4, Trudovaia kniga; f. 12, op. 9, d. 2.

(362).MM, f. 12, op. 2, d. 2, l. 13; d. 3, l. 43.

(363).S. Rosefield, ,Stalinism in Post-, Communist Perspective: New Evidence on Killings, Forced Labour and Economic Growth in the 1930s, Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 48, no. 6(1996), p. 969.

(364).MSP, f. 3, op. 1, d. 2, ll. 1–14; d. 5, ll. 1–5, 12–15; Pravda, 3 November 1929, p. 5; P. Broué, Trotsky(Paris, 1988), p. 638.

(365).MSP, f. 3, op. 1, d. 5, ll. 10, 19.

(366).MSP, f. 3, op. 1, d. 4(信件的引文可按日期检索).

(367).MSP, f. 3, op. 1, d. 2, ll. 21, 59.

(368).MSP, f. 3, op. 1, d. 2, l. 58.

(369).MSP, f. 3, op. 1, d. 2, l. 50.

(370).MSP, f. 3, op. 1, d. 2, l. 52.

(371).MSP, f,.3, op. 1, d. 5, ll. 7, 8, 21, 25–6.

(372).Stalins Letters to Molotov, edited by L. Lih, O. Naumov and O. Khlevniuk, translated by C. Fitzpatrick(New Haven, 1995), p. 200.

(373).RGAE, f. 769, op. 1, d. 23–35.

(374).RGAE, f. 769, op. 1, d. 25, l. 10.

(375).RGAE, f. 769, op. 1, d. 31, l. 9.

(376).RGAE, f. 769, op. 1, d. 13.

(377).RGAE, f. 769, op. 1, d. 29, l. 44.

第四章 大恐怖(1937—1938)

(378).Pravda, 31 January 1932; Golgofa. Po materialam arkhivno-sledstvennogo dela no. 603 na Sokolovu-Piatnitskuiu Iu. I., ed. V. I. Piatnitskii(St Petersburg, 1993), p. 42.

(379).Ibid., pp. 8–9.

(380).V. Piatnitskii, Zagovor protiv Stalina(Moscow, 1998), p. 198.

(381).Golgofa, p. 9.

(382).J. Haslam, ,Political Opposition to Stalin and the Origins of the Terror, 1932–1936, , Historical Journal, vol. 29, no. 2(June 1986), p. 412. See also same author, ,The Soviet Union, the Comintern and the Demise of the Popular Front, 1936–39, , in H. Graham and O. Preston(eds.), The Popular Front in Europe(London, 1987), pp. 152–60; K. McDermott, ,Stalinist Terror in the Comintern: New Perspectives, , Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 30, no. 1(January 1995), pp. 111–30.

(383).The Diary of Georgi Dimitrov, 1933–1949(New Haven, 2003), p. 110; McDermott, ,Stalinist Terror, , p. 118.

(384).B. Starkov, ,The Trial That Was Not Held, , Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 46, no. 8(1994), p. 1303.

(385).Golgofa, pp. 20, 21, 24; interviews with Vladimir Piatnitsky, St Petersburg, September 2005.

(386).Golgofa, pp. 62–3.

(387).Ibid., pp. 25, 39–40.

(388).Ibid., pp. 26, 34; interviews with Vladimir Piatnitsky, St Petersburg, September 2005.

(389).M. Ellman, ,Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments, , Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 54, no. 7(November 2002); H. Kuromiya, ,Accounting for the Great Terror, , Jahbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, 53(2005), p. 88; A. Applebaum, Gulag: A History of the Soviet Camps(London, 2003), pp. 516, 519. The figures for 1929–32 are from V. Popov, ,Gosudarstvennyi terror v sovetskoi Rossii. 1923–1953 gg., , Otechestvennyi arkhiv, 1992, no. 2, p. 28.

(390).J. Getty, Origins of the Great Purges: The Soviet Communist Party Reconsidered, 1933–1938(Cambridge, 1985).

(391).P. Solomon, Soviet Criminal Justice Under Stalin(Cambridge, Mass., 1996), chap. 5; O. Khlevniuk, ,The Politburo, Penal Policy and ,,Legal Reforms,, in the 1930s, , in P. Solomon(ed.), Reforming Justice in Russia, 1864–1996: Power, Culture, and the Limits of Legal Order(Armonk, 1997), pp. 190–206.

(392).J. Getty, , ,,Excesses Are Not Permitted,, : Mass Terror and Stalinist Governance in the Late 1930s, , Russian Review, 61(2002), no. 1, pp. 113–38.

(393).S. Fitzpatrick, ,Varieties of Terror, , in same author(ed.), Stalinism: New Directions(London, 2000), p. 258. For a similar view: B. McLoughlin and K. McDermott, ,Rethinking Stalinist Terror, , in same authors(eds.), Stalin, s Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union(New York, 2003), pp. 1–18.

(394).O. Khlevniuk, ,The Reasons for the ,,Great Terror,, : The Foreign Political Aspect, , Annali della Fondazione Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, vol. 34(1998), pp. 163ff.; same author, ,The Objectives of the Great Terror, 1937–38, , in J. Cooper, M. Perrie and E. Rees(eds.), Soviet History, 1917–1953: Essays in Honour of R. W. Davies(London, 1995), pp. 158–76. 另可参见H. Kuromiya, ,Accounting for the Great Terror, ,我从中借鉴引用了后面的段落。

(395).Kuromiya, ,Accounting for the Great Terror, , p. 94; S. Payne, The Spanish Civil War, the Soviet Union, and Communism(New Haven, 2004), p. 309.

(396).S. Allilueva, Twenty Letters to a Friend(London, 1967), pp. 88–9; J. Getty and O. Naumov, The Road to Terror: Stalin and the Self-Destruction of the Bolsheviks, 1932–1939(New Haven, 1999), pp. 157, 256–7.

(397).V. Kravchenko, I Chose Freedom(London, 1947), p. 213.

(398).V. Rogovin, Partiia rasstreliannykh(Moscow, 1997), pp. 487–9; Reabilitatsia. Kak eto bylo, 3 vols.(Moscow, 2000–2004), vol. 1, p. 30; O. Suvenirov, Tragediia RKKA, 1938–1938(Moscow, 1998), p. 315.

(399).Istochnik, 1994, no. 3, p. 80; N. Khrushchev, Khrushchev Remembers(London, 1971), p. 283;M. Jansen and N. Petrov, Stalin, s Loyal Executioner: People, s Commissar Nikolai Ezhov, 1895–1940(Stanford, 2002), pp. 89, 201.

(400).F. Chuev, Sto sorok besed s Molotovym(Moscow, 1991), pp. 390, 413; Piatnitskii, Zagovor protiv Stalina, p. 65; Kuromiya, ,Accounting for the Great Terror, , p. 96.

(401).Tragediia sovetskoi derevni: kollektivizatsiia i raskulachivanie. Dokumenty i materialy, 5 vols.(Moscow, 1999–2004), vol. 5: 1937–1939, Part 1, 1937, pp. 32, 33, 46, 54, 387; Kuromiya, ,Accounting for the Great Terror, , pp. 92–3.

(402).N. Petrov and A. Roginskii, , ,,Pol, skaia operatsiia,, NKVD 1937–1938 gg., , in L. Eremina(ed.)Repressii protiv poliakov i pol, skikh grazhdan(Moscow, 1996), pp. 40–43. 关于“国家行动”作为“种族清洗”的形式,参见:T. Martin, The Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923–1939(Ithaca, 2001), pp. 328–43.

(403).V. Garros, N. Korenevskaya and T. Lahusen(eds.), Intimacy and Terror(New York, 1995), p. 357.

(404).Interview with Vladimir Piatnitsky, St Petersburg, September 2005.

(405).R. Thurston, Life and Terror in Stalin, s Russia(New Haven, 1996), pp. 72–7.

(406).V. Frid, 58?: zapiski lagernogo pridurka(Moscow, 1996), p. 91.

(407).Interview with Viacheslav Kolobkov, St Petersburg, May 2004.

(408).E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind(New York, 1967), pp. 21–2.

(409).E. Bonner, Mothers and Daughters(London, 1992), p. 263.

(410).MP, f. 4, op. 4, d. 2, ll. 2, 25; op. 5, d. 5, ll. 3–4; L. Il, ina, Moi otets protiv NKVD(St Petersburg, 1998), pp. 16–21.

(411).MSP, f. 3, op. 12, d. 2, ll. 35–40, 116–17.

(412).SFA, I. Slavina, ,Tonen, kii nerv istorii, , ms., pp. 9–13.

(413).R. Conquest, The Great Terror: A Reassessment(London, 1992), pp. 75, 87, 89, 127.

(414).V. Bronshtein, ,Stalin and Trotsky, s Relatives in Russia, , in T. Brotherstone and P. Dukes(eds.), The Trotsky Reappraisal(Edinburgh, 1992), pp. 8–15.

(415).Getty and Naumov, The Road to Terror, pp. 486–7; Chuev, Sto sorok besed, p. 415.

(416).Golgofa, p. 29.

(417).See also MSP, f. 3, op. 34, d. 2; MP, f. 4, op. 16, dd. 2, 3.

(418).Golgofa, pp. 31, 34, 35–6, 43, 45; interview with Vladimir Piatnitsky, St Petersburg, August 2005.

(419).Golgofa, p. 37.

(420).M. Prishvin, ,Dnevnik 1937 goda, , Oktiabr, , 1995, no. 9, p. 168.

(421).Conquest, The Great Terror, p. 256; M. Prishvin and V. Prishvin, My s toboi. Dnevnik liubvi(Moscow, 1996), p. 13.

(422).MP, f. 4, op. 25, d. 2, ll. 9–10.

(423).MSP, f. 3, op. 8, d. 2, l. 9.

(424).MP, f. 4, op. 6, d. 2, ll. 18, 37.

(425).E. Gerstein, Moscow Memoirs(London, 2004), p. 79.

(426).MM, f. 12, op. 14, d. 2, ll. 15–16.

(427).MM, f. 12, op. 7, d. 2, l. 23.

(428).Gerstein, Moscow Memoirs, p. 214.

(429).MP, f. 4, op. 8. d. 2, l. 22.

(430).MM, f. 12, op. 28, d. 2, ll. 12, 35–6.

(431).GFA, O. Golovnia, ,Dom na Vasil, evskoi, , ms., pp. 2–3.

(432).Prishvin, ,Dnevnik 1937 goda, , Oktiabr, , 1995, no. 9, p. 158.

(433).A. Man, kov, Dnevniki tridtsatykh godov(St Petersburg, 2001), p. 144.

(434).Prishvin, ,Dnevnik 1937 goda, , Oktiabr, , 1995, no. 9, p. 165.

(435).关于日记的作用的不同看法,参见“引言”部分注释中所提到的Jochen Hellbeck的作品。

(436)., ,,Zhizn, stala veselei . . .,, Iz dnevnika 1936 goda, , Oktiabr, , 1993, no. 10, p. 4; M. Prishvin, ,Dnevnik 1937 goda, , Oktiabr, , 1994, no. 11, p. 144; same author, Sobranie sochinenii, 8 vols.(Moscow, 1986), vol. 8, p. 473.

(437).J. Hellbeck, Revolution on My Mind: Writing a Diary Under Stalin(Cambridge, Mass., 2006), pp. 304–5, 306, 308–9, 311–22; RGALI, f. 2172, op. 3, d. 5, l. 249.

(438).E. Evangulova, Krestnyi put, (St Petersburg, 2000), pp. 68, 81, 83.

(439).Man, kov, Dnevniki, p. 59.

(440).Prishvin and Prishvin, My s toboi, pp. 22–3, 35, 37.

(441).MM, f. 12, op. 25, d. 2, l. 136; Kravchenko, I Chose Freedom, p. 448; Thurston, Life and Terror in Stalin,s Russia, p. 71. 一名政治警察官员提供了较低的数字,说莫斯科在1930年有1万名举报人,载于:G. Agabekov, GPU: zapiski chekista(Moscow, 1931). 另可参见:V. Semystiaha, ,The Role and Place of Secret Collaborators in the Informational Activity of the GPU-NKVD in the 1920s and 1930s(on the Basis of Materials of the Donbass Region), , Cahiers du Monde Russe, vol. 42, nos. 2–4(2001), pp. 231–44.

(442).关于较低层次的举报人网络,参见:C. Hooper, ,Terror from Within: Participation and Coercion in Soviet Power, 1924–64, (Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 2003), pp. 154–64.

(443).K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia(Moscow, 1990), p. 50.

(444).W. Leonhard, Child of the Revolution(London, 1957), pp. 100–102.

(445).Frid, 58?, pp. 160–61.

(446).MP, f. 4, op. 9, d. 2, ll. 25–7; d. 5, ll. 8–9.

(447).O. Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put, (Moscow, 2002), p. 172.

(448).TsAODM, f. 369, op. 1, d. 161, ll. 1–2.

(449).Interviewed in The Hand of Stalin(Part 2), October Films, 1990.

(450).Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put, , pp. 19–20.

(451).Cited in Thurston, Life and Terror in Stalin, s Russia, p. 154.

(452).MSP, f. 3, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 3–4, 63–5.

(453).Interview with Lev Molotkov, St Petersburg, May 2003.

(454).N. Adler, Beyond the Soviet System: The Gulag Survivor(New Brunswick, 2002), p. 216; I. Shikheeva-Gaister, Semeinaia khronika vremen kul, ta lichnosti: 1925–1953(Moscow, 1998), p. 32.

(455).Conquest, The Great Terror, p. 222; V. Kozlov, ,Denunciation and Its Functions in Soviet Governance: A Study of Denunciations and Their Bureaucratic Handling from Soviet Police Archives, 1944–1953, , Journal of Modern History, vol. 68, no. 4(December 1996), p. 875. On apartments see V. Buchli, An Archaeology of Socialism(Oxford, 1999), pp. 113–17.

(456).MSP, f. 3, op. 36, d. 2, ll. 3, 13–14; d. 3, ll. 4–6.

(457).Simonov, Glazami, pp. 55, 62.

(458).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 5, ll. 65–7; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003.

(459).RGALI, f. 632, op. 1, d. 12, ll. 28–9; d. 13, l. 10; interview with Semyon Vorovsky, Moscow, June 2005.

(460).RGALI, f. 631, op. 15, d. 242, ll. 6–8; f. 618, op. 3, d. 27, ll. 5–14.

(461).RGALI, f. 653, op. 1, d. 1087, l. 4.

(462).RGALI, f. 631, op. 15, d. 226, l. 72.

(463).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 437, ll. 1–7.

(464).RGALI, f. 632, op. 1, d. 15, l. 23.

(465).RGALI, f. 632, op. 1, d. 12, l. 13.

(466).E. Dolmatovskii, Bylo: zapiski poeta(Moscow, 1982); interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003.

(467).RGALI, f. 1812, op. 1, d. 96, l. 7.

(468).RGALI, f. 631, op. 15, d. 265, l. 34.

(469).A. Granovsky, All Pity Choked: The Memoirs of a Soviet Secret Agent(London, 1952), p. 101.

(470).Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, pp. 90–92.

(471).A. Gorbatov, Years off My Life(London, 1964), pp. 103–4.

(472).Conquest, The Great Terror, pp. 203–4.亚基尔将军的动机之一,可能是为了拯救自己的家人(后来都被枪决或送去了劳改营)。

(473).F. Beck and W. Godin, Russian Purge and the Extraction of Confession(London, 1951), p. 86.

(474).S. Vilenskii(ed.), Till My Tale is Told(London, 1999), pp. 124–6.

(475).Interviewed in The Hand of Stalin(Part 2), October Films, 1990.

(476).Kravchenko, I Chose Freedom, p. 206. See further: S. Davies, Popular Opinion in Stalin, s Russia: Terror, Propaganda and Dissent, 1934–1941(Cambridge, 1997), pp. 131–5; Thurston, Life and Terror in Stalin,s Russia, pp. 143–6.

(477).Interview with Ida Slavina, Cologne, June 2003.

(478).MM, f. 12, op. 21, d. 2, ll. 28–9; op. 32, d. 2, l. 17.

(479).MP, f. 4, op. 18, d. 2, ll. 32–5, 49–50.

(480).VFA, letter from Pavel to Yevgeniia Vittenburg, [February] 1937.

(481).TsMAMLS, f. 68, op. 1, d. 76, l. 77; d. 124, l. 19; d. 141, l. 88.

(482).N. Kaminskaya, Final Judgment: My Life as a Soviet Defence Attorney(New York, 1982), p. 19.

(483).MM, f. 12, op. 23, d. 2, ll. 37–8.

(484).Simonov, Glazami, pp. 54–5.

(485).Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put, , p. 11.

(486).Deti GULAGa 1918–1956, Rossiia XXvek. Dokumenty(Moscow, 2002), pp. 272–3.

(487).O. Khlevniuk, ,The Objectives of the Great Terror, 1937–1938, , in D. Hoffman(ed.), Stalinism(London, 2003), p. 98; Jansen and Petrov, Stalin, s Loyal Executioner, pp. 187–8, 192.

(488).SLFA, Mark Laskin, ,Vospominaniia, , ms., p. 41.

(489).Simonov, Glazami, p. 59.

(490).V. Shentalinsky, The KGB, s Literary Archive(London, 1993), pp. 186–7.

(491).RGALI, f. 1712, op. 1, d. 21, l. 4, op. 4, d. 8, l. 37.

(492).RGALI, f. 1712, op. 3, d. 13, l. 1.

(493).GARF, f. 5446, op. 82, d. 66, ll. 287–8. See also L. Siegelbaum and A. Sokolov(eds.), Stalinism as a Way of Life: A Narrative in Documents(Yale, 2000), pp. 237–41.

(494).Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put, , pp. 77–8.

(495).P. Solomon, Soviet Criminal Justice under Stalin(Cambridge, 1996), p. 234.

(496).M. Shreider, NKVD iznutri: zapiski chekista(Moscow, 1995), p. 42.

(497).Ibid., p. 91.

(498).Ibid., pp. 104–5.

(499).Ibid., p. 120.

(500).Bonner, Mothers and Daughters, p. 304.

(501).A. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956: An Experiment in Literary Investigation, 3 vols.(London, 1974–8), vol. 2, p. 637.

(502).Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put, , pp. 11–12.

(503).MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, l. 93.

(504).MSP, f. 3, op. 12, d. 2, ll. 42–3.

(505).MP, f. 4, op. 6, d. 2, ll. 6–10, 39–41, 45–9; d. 3, ll. 1–6.

(506).Golgofa, pp. 30, 32, 35; interview with Vladimir Piatnitsky, St Petersburg, August 2005.

(507).MSP, f. 3, op. 18, d. 1, l. 1; d. 2, ll. 2–3, 7–10.

(508).MP, f. 4, op. 25, d. 2, ll. 7–8, 13–16, 18, 19, 21–2, 26–30.

(509).See e.g. MSP, f. 3, op. 4, d. 2; MP, f. 4, op. 4, d. 2; V. Shapovalov(ed.), Remembering the Darkness: Women in Soviet Prisons(Lanham, 2001), pp. 228–9; N. Ulanovskaia and M. Ulanovskaia, Istoriia odnoi sem, i(New York, 1982), p. 135.

(510).MM, f. 12, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 16–20.

(511).O. Liubchenko, ,Arbat 30, kvartira 58, , Istochnik, 1993, nos. 5–6, pp. 26–9.

(512).SFA, I. Slavina, ,Tonen, kii nerv istorii, , ms., p. 31; interview with Ida Slavina, Cologne, June 2003.

(513).Bonner, Mothers and Daughters, pp. 254–5(艾莱娜·邦纳把校长的名字误记成Klavdia Vasileevna); interview with Elena Bonner, Boston, November 2006.

(514).Interview with Ida Slavina, Cologne, September 2004.

(515).MSP, f. 3, op. 46, d. 2, ll. 17–18, 42–3.

(516).MP, f. 4, op. 18, d. 2, l. 53.

(517).MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, ll. 23–5, 37.

(518).MM, f. 1, op. 1, d. 169(Sofia to Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko, 16 October 1937).

(519).GARF, f. 7523, op. 123, d. 202, ll. 16–19.

(520).GARF, f. 5446, op. 26, d. 105, ll. 35–6.

(521).Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put, , pp. 60–63.

(522).MP, f. 4, op. 6, d. 2, ll. 37–8.

(523).MSP, f. 3, op. 4, d. 2, l. 24.

(524).The Diary of Nina Kosterina(London, 1972), pp. 35, 44, 53, 85, 163, 165.

(525).M. Baitalsky, Notebooks for the Grandchildren: Recollections of a Trotskyist Who Survived the Stalin Terror(New Jersey, 1995), pp. 334–5.

(526).MSP, f. 3, op. 10, d. 1, l. 1; d. 3, ll. 7, 10–11.

(527).Golgofa, pp. 41, 46, 53–4; interview with Vladimir Piatnitsky, St Petersburg, September 2005.

(528).Golgofa, pp. 33, 42.

(529).Ibid., pp. 41–2.

(530).Interview with Vladimir Piatnitsky, St Petersburg, September 2005. She was receiving psychiatric help from May 1938(see Golgofa, p. 88).

(531).Golgofa, pp. 42–3, 58.

(532).Ibid., pp. 57, 100.

(533).Ibid., pp. 52, 61; interview with Vladimir Piatnitsky, St Petersburg, September 2005.

(534).L. Razgon, True Stories(London, 1997), p. 131.

(535).Starkov, ,The Trial, , p. 1307.

(536).Lubianka. Stalin i glavnoe upravlenie gosbezopasnosti NKVD, 1937–1938(Moscow, 2004), p. 544.

(537).Golgofa, p. 80.

(538).Ibid., pp. 83–4.

(539).Ibid., p. 99.

(540).Interview with Vladimir Piatnitsky, St Petersburg, September 2005.

(541).Golgofa, pp. 114–16.

第五章 大恐怖的余波(1938—1941)

(542).MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 7–10.

(543).MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, l. 5. See similarly MM, f. 4, op. 11, d. 2, ll. 40–41.

(544).MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, l. 10.

(545).MSP, f. 3, op. 41, d. 2, l. 10.

(546).MSP, f. 3, op. 41, d. 2, ll. 6, 11, 31–2, 54, 59, 62–3, 65.

(547).MSP, f. 3, op. 6, d. 2, ll. 6, 10, 25–6.

(548).关于单亲家庭中承担成人角色的头胎孩子,参见:MP, f. 4, op. 24, d. 2, ll. 39–40; op. 13, d. 2, ll. 42–4。

(549).MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, ll. 11–12, 40; I. Shikheeva-Gaister, Semeinaia khronika vremen kul’ta lichnosti: 1925–1953(Moscow, 1998), pp. 36–8, 41–7, 50, 53–4, 187.

(550).MP, f. 4, op. 22, d. 2, ll. 3–4, 24–6, 34–5.

(551).See S. Davies, Popular Opinion in Stalin, s Russia: Terror, Propaganda and Dissent, 1934–1941(Cambridge, 1997), pp. 131–2.

(552).MM, f. 1, op. 3, d. 905(25 January 1939).

(553).See in particular MM, f. 1, op. 1, d. 5401; op. 3, d. 5923; f. 12, op. 25, d. 2; op. 31, d. 2.

(554).MM, f. 1, op. 3, d. 905(25 August 1940); f. 12, op. 3, d. 2, l. 31.

(555).L. Siegelbaum and A. Sokolov(eds.), Stalinism as a Way of Life: A Narrative in Documents(Yale, 2000), p. 401.

(556).GMPIR, f. 2, nos. 51291–1345; VS 11026; f. 6, VS 1937, VS 1937 VS 1938.

(557).MM, f. 12, op. 22, d. 1, l. 1; d. 2, ll. 5–6, 14.

(558).MSP, f. 3, op. 40, d. 2, ll. 10, 22; d. 5(20 May 1940).

(559).MSP, f. 3, op. 40, d. 2, ll. 7, 18, 24, 34–5.

(560).MSP, f. 3, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 71–2.

(561).MSP, f. 3, op. 16, d. 1; d. 2, ll. 25–7.

(562).GARF, f. 5207, op. 3, d. 49, l. 190; d.56, l. 18.

(563).A. Applebaum, Gulag: A History of the Soviet Camps(London, 2003), p. 300.

(564).MSP, f. 3, op. 29, d. 2, ll. 1, 3, 14, 20–21.

(565).MM, f. 12, op. 27, d. 2, ll. 4, 72.

(566).MSP, f. 3, op. 13, d. 2, ll. 4–6, 21–4.

(567).MSP, f. 3, op. 24, d. 2, ll. 10, 41; d. 4, l. 25.

(568).MSP, f. 3, op. 24, d. 2, ll. 37–8.

(569).MSP, f. 3, op. 24, d. 2, ll. 20, 39–40.

(570).M. Nikolaev, Detdom(New York, 1985), pp. 48–9, 89.

(571).Ibid., pp. 42, 65, 101.

(572).Ibid., pp. 77–9, 126; interview with Viktoriia Shweitser(Mikhail Nikolaev, s widow), Moscow, July 2004.

(573).MSP, f. 3, op. 24, d. 2, l. 16; d. 4, l. 21.

(574).MSP, f. 3, op. 12, d. 2, l. 68.

(575).MSP, f. 3, op. 12, d. 2, ll. 127–30.

(576).E. P. Evangulova, Krestnyi put, (St Petersburg, 2000), pp. 59, 69, 75, 77, 81.

(577).SFA, I. Slavina, ,Na vesakh nadezhdy i otchaianiia, , ms., p. 1.

(578).MSP, f. 3, op. 42, d. 2, l. 23; d. 3, ll. 1–2.

(579).MP, f. 4, op. 12, d. 2, ll. 10, 14, 32, 63–4.

(580).MSP, f. 3, op. 11, d. 2, ll. 39, 61, 62, 63–4, 72.

(581).Lynne Viola, ,Tear the Evil From the Root: The Children of Spetspereselentsy of the North, , in Natalia Baschmakoff and Paul Fryer(eds.), Modernization of the Russian Provinces, special issue of Studia Slavica Finlandensia, 17(April 2000), pp. 60–61.

(582).MP, f. 4, op. 18, d. 2, ll. 11, 16, 50, 52, 65, 76; d. 5, ll. 22–3.

(583).MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, l. 14.

(584).Interviews with Oksana Kozmina(Moscow, 1988), Klavdiia Goncharova(Moscow, 1986), Inna Ilina(Moscow, 1988), Lydia Violina(Moscow, 1988), Klavdiia Babaeva(Moscow, 1988); GFA, interviews with Sergei Barinov(Akmolinsk, 1988); Leninskaia smena, 2 June 1988, p. 2; M. Shreider, NKVD iznutri: zapiski chekista(Moscow, 1995), p. 117. See further A. Kukushkina, Akmolinskii lager, zhen ,izmennikov rodiny, . Istoriia i sud, by(Karaganda, 2002).

(585).MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 4, 45, 51.

(586).A. Applebaum, Gulag, p. 234; I. Shikheeva-Gaister, Semeinaia khronika vremen kul, ta lichnosti: 1925–1953(Moscow, 1998), pp. 47–8.

(587).SFA, I. Slavina, ,Na vesakh nadezhdy i otchaianiia, , ms., pp. 6–7.

(588).Interview with Oksana Kozmina, Moscow, 1988.

(589).将“模范囚犯”讲述得最淋漓尽致的是索尔仁尼琴的《古拉格群岛》,参见:The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956: An Experiment in Literary Investigation, 3 vols.(London, 1974–8), vol. 2, pp. 251–91。

(590).MM, f. 12, op. 29, d. 2, ll. 1, 18.

(591).H. Volovich, ,My Past, , in S. Vilenskii(ed.), Till My Tale is Told: Women, s Memoirs of the GULAG(Bloomington, 1999), pp. 260–64.

(592).Applebaum, Gulag, p. 293.

(593).Interviews with Oksana Kozmina(Moscow, 1988), Klavdiia Goncharova(Moscow, 1986), Inna Ilina(Moscow, 1988), Lydia Violina(Moscow, 1988), Klavdiia Babaeva(Moscow, 1988), Mikhail Iusipenko(Akmolinsk, 1988).

(594).On this see Solzhenitsyn, Gulag, vol. 2, pp. 229–34; Applebaum, Gulag, pp. 285–91.

(595).MIFA, Tina Mikheladze, ,Vospominaniia, , ms., pp. 1–8; interview with Vakhtang Mikheladze, Moscow, April 2003.

(596).MSP, f. 3, op. 41, d. 2, ll. 10–12, 40–41, 83–91.

(597).GFA, Oksana Golovnia, ,Vospominaniia, , ms., pp. 5–7.

(598).GFA, letter from Anatoly to Liuba Golovnia, 22 June 1940; letters from Polina Eisner to Liuba Golovnia, 11 December 1940, 22 March 1941.

(599).GFA, Oksana Golovnia, ,Predislovie k pis, mam, , ms., p. 42; Polina Eisner(Ivanova), ,Avtobiografiia,(February 1942); interview with Oksana Kozmina, Moscow, 1988; letters from Anatoly to Liuba Golovnia, 23 July 1939; 1 March, 27 March, 3 April 1940.

(600).Interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003.

(601).RGALI, f. 632, op. 1, d. 14, ll. 26–7.

(602).RGALI, f. 631, op. 2, d. 453, l. 21; f. 2897, op. 1, d. 114; A. Simonov, Chastnaia kollektsiia(Nizhny Novgorod, 1999), pp. 35–6, 49; interviews with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; SLFA, Yevgeniia Laskina to Aleksandra Ivanisheva, 8 September 1939; Konstantin Simonov to Yevgeniia Laskina, August 1939.

(603).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 93, l. 20.

(604).J. Colvin, Nomonhan(London, 1999), pp. 169–75.

(605).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 480, l. 106; op. 6, d. 170, l. 46; op. 10, d. 339, l. 11; K. Simonov, 100 sutok voiny(Moscow, 1999), p. 295.

(606).G. Roberts, ,The Soviet Decision for a Pact with Nazi Germany, , Soviet Studies, vol. 44, no. 1(1992), pp. 57–78; R. Overy, The Dictators: Hitler, s Germany and Stalin, s Russia(London, 2004), p. 486.

(607).C. Merridale, Ivan, s War: The Red Army 1939–45(London, 2005), p. 44.

(608).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 6, d. 170, ll. 44–6; K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia(Moscow, 1990), p. 67; Simonov, 100 sutok voiny, pp. 292–3.

(609).Simonov, 100 sutok voiny, pp. 297–8.

(610).Konstantin Simonov v vospominaniiakh sovremennikov(Moscow, 1984), pp. 18–20.

(611).N. Pushnova, Valentina Serova(Moscow, 2003), pp. 10, 298–9; interview with Maria Simonova, Moscow, March 2004.

(612).Pushnova, Valentina Serova, pp. 48–9.

(613).Ibid., p. 96.

(614).Interview with Fania Laskina, Moscow, July 2004.

(615).Pushnova, Valentina Serova, p. 115; M. Simonova, ,Ia pomniu, , Ogonek, 1993, no. 6, pp. 22–3; interview with Fania Laskina, Moscow, November 2003.

第六章 “等着我吧”(1941—1945)

(616).MFA, L. Makhnach, ,Oskolki bylogo s vysoty nastoiashchego, , ms., pp. 1–14; Vladimir to Maria Makhnach, November 1941; TsAODM, f. 3, op. 52, d. 27, l. 21.

(617).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 339, l. 6; K. Simonov, 100 sutok voiny(Moscow, 1999), pp. 6–17.

(618).Simonov, 100 sutok voiny, pp. 51–2; SLFA, M. Laskin, ,Vospominaniia, , ms., p. 55.

(619).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 4, d. 5, ll. 7, 58. 关于西蒙诺夫在战争年代发展了对大恐怖的思索,参见:A. Karaganov, Konstantin Simonov vblizi i na rasstoianii(Moscow, 1987), pp. 88–9。 关于大恐怖对苏维埃武装部队的遗患,参见:E. Seniavskaia, ,Dukhovnyi oblik frontovogo pokoleniia: istorikopsikhologicheskii ocherk, , Vestnik MGU: Istoriia, 1992, no. 4, pp. 39–51; M. von Hagen, ,Soviet Soldiers and Officers on the Eve of the German Invasion: Toward a Description of Social Psychology and Political Attitudes, , in R. Thurston and B. Bonwetsch(eds.), The People, s War: Responses to World War II in the Soviet Union(Urbana, 2000), pp. 193ff.

(620).Simonov, 100 sutok voiny, pp, 17–21, 53, 121, 409–11.

(621).Moskva voennaia 1941–1945: memuary i arkhivnye dokumenty(Moscow, 1995), p. 475; C. Merridale, Ivan, s War: The Red Army 1939–1945(London, 2005), p. 84; Simonov, 100 sutok voiny, p. 50.

(622).Moskva voennaia, p. 478; R. Bidlack, ,The Political Mood in Leningrad During the First Year of the Soviet–German War, , Russian Review, vol. 59, no. 1(January 2000), pp. 101–11; G. Bordiugov, ,The Popular Mood in the Unoccupied Soviet Union: Continuity and Change during the War, , in The People,s War, pp. 59–60; M. Gorinov, ,Muscovites, Moods, 22 June 1941 to May 1942, , in The People, s War, pp. 119–20.

(623).V. Shapovalov(ed.), Remembering the Darkness: Women in Soviet Prisons(Lanham, Maryland, 2001), pp. 150–51; MSP, f. 3, op. 35, d. 1, l. 1; d. 2, l. 34.

(624).R. Overy, Russia, s War(London, 1997), p. 94.

(625).E. Maksimova, Deti voennoi pory(Moscow, 1988), pp. 235–308; Merridale, Ivan, s War, p. 216.

(626).Interviews with Iurii Streletsky, St Petersburg, May 2003, February 2004.

(627).J. Dunstan, Soviet Schooling in the Second World War(Basingstoke, 1997), p. 82; J. Barber and M. Harrison, The Soviet Home Front, 1941–1945: A Social and Economic History of the USSR in World War II(London, 1991), p. 128.

(628).MSP, f. 3, op. 3, d. 2, ll. 14–15, 34–42; d. 3, l. 28.

(629).MSP, f. 3, op. 45, d. 2, ll. 9, 53, 88, 165.

(630).MSP, f. 3, op. 45, d. 2, ll. 11, 46.

(631).Moskva voennaia, pp. 478, 481.

(632).Ibid., pp. 149, 152.

(633).K. Simonov, Sobranie sochinenii, 12 vols.(Moscow, 1979–87), vol. 1, p. 171. 我借用了Mike Munford的译文(www.simonov.co.uk)。

(634).Interview with Fania Laskina, Moscow, February 2003; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, September 2003; SLFA, Sonia Laskina, s papers; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 339, l. 41.

(635).N. Pushnova, Valentina Serova: krug otchuzhdeniia(Moscow, 2003), pp. 150–52, 161–5; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2788, l. 1.

(636).A. Todd and M. Hayward(eds.), Twentieth-Century Russian Poetry(London, 1993), pp. 623–4(translated by L. Yakovleva).

(637).L. Lazarev, Konstantin Simonov. Ocherk zhizni i tvorchestva(Moscow, 1985), pp. 66–7, 71, 78–9; L. Pushkarev, Po dorogam voiny: vospominaniia fol, kloristafrontovika(Moscow, 1995), pp. 56–7; B. Pankin, Chetyre Ia Konstantina Simonova(Moscow 1999), p. 80; Poslednie pis, ma s fronta. Sbornik, 5 vols.(Moscow, 1992), vol. 3(1943), p. 257.

(638).RGALI. f. 1814, op. 1, d. 765, l. 9.

(639).Pushkarev, Po dorogam voiny, pp. 31, 57–8.

(640).On this see Merridale, Ivan, s War, pp. 93, 208, 272–4.

(641).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 8, d. 93, ll. 61–2.

(642).Simonov, Sobranie sochinenii, vol. 1, pp. 129–32.

(643).Lazarev, Konstantin Simonov, pp. 38–9, 70–72; same author, Pamiat, trudnoi godiny. Velikaia otechestvennaia voina v russkoi literature(Moscow, 2000, pp. 47–9; Autobiographical Statements in Twentieth-Century Russian Literature(Princeton, 1990), p. 13; R. Stites, ,Soviet Russian Wartime Culture: Freedom and Control, Spontaneity and Consciousness, , in The People, s War, p. 175; V. Dunham, In Stalin, s Time: Middle-Class Values in Soviet Fiction(Durham, 1990), pp. 70–71; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 772, l. 362.

(644).L. Lazarev, Shestoi etazh. Kniga vospominaniia(Moscow, 1999), pp. 202–3.

(645).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1532, l. 4; d. 775, l. 1; interviews with Fania Laskina, Moscow, June and September 2003; Pushnova, Valentina Serova, pp. 181–2, 290; T. Okunevskaia, Tat, ianin den, (Moscow, 1998), pp. 119–20.

(646).See e.g. RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 765, ll. 15, 66, 68, 77.

(647).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1530, l. 2; d. 1533, ll. 29–30.

(648).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2768, l. 10; d. 1, l. 1; d. 1533, ll. 18–19; d. 2768, l. 15.

(649).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1, l. 3.

(650).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1533, l. 19.

(651).N. Ivanova, ,Konstantin Simonov ,,Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia,, , , Znamia, 1997, no. 7; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 339, l. 8; interview with Aleksei Simonov, London, May 2004; interview with Marina Babak, Moscow, November 2003.

(652).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 6, d. 170, l. 17; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, September 2003; Lazarev, Shestoi etazh, p. 213.

(653).Karaganov, Konstantin Simonov, pp. 9–10; A. Simonov, Chastnaia kollektsiia(Nizhny Novgorod, 1999), pp. 22–4; SLFA, Zhenia Laskina to Vladimir Lugovskoi, 28 August 1943; Sonia Laskina to Vladimir Lugovskoi, 21 August 1943; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1812, ll. 1–2.

(654).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 339, l. 20; K. Simonov, Segodnia i davno(Moscow, 1978), p. 321; E. Dolmatovskii, Bylo: zapiski poeta(Moscow, 1982), p. 58(also RGALI, f. 1814, op. 6, d. 170, l. 2).

(655).rasnaia zvezda, 28 August 1941, p. 1; 7 November 1941, p. 4; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 993, l. 37; K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia(Moscow, 1990), p. 87.

(656).Simonov, 100 sutok voiny, pp. 550–51.

(657).Ibid., pp. 17–21.

(658).Merridale, Ivan, s War, pp. 134–8.

(659).R. McNeal, Stalin: Man and Ruler(London, 1988), p. 241; R. Parker, Moscow Correspondent(London, 1949), pp. 21–2.

(660).Pushkarev, Po dorogam voiny, p. 60; E. Seniavskaia, Chelovek na voine. Istorikopsikhologicheskie ocherki(Moscow, 1997), pp. 47–8; Lazarev, Konstantin Simonov, p. 68; Karaganov, Konstantin Simonov, p. 68; Simonov, Sobranie sochinenii, vol. 1, pp. 105–7; A. Werth, Russia at War 1941–1945(London, 1964), p. 412.韦斯弄错了该幕的最后一句台词,他引用的词句实际上出现在前面。

(661).K. Simonov, Pis, ma o voine, 1943–1979(Moscow, 1990), p. 110.

(662).D. Samoilov, Podennye zapisi, 2 vols.(Moscow, 2002), vol. 1, p. 140; ,Zaveshchanie zhivym(pis, ma s fronta), , Sovetskaia Rossiia, 9 May 1991.

(663).Seniavskaia, ,Dukhovnyi oblik, , p. 49; V. Kondrat, ev, ,Ne tol, ko o svoem pokolenii. Zametki pisatelia, , Kommunist, 1997, no. 7, p. 122.

(664).S. Conze and B. Fieseler, ,Soviet Women as Comrades-in-Arms: A Blind Spot in Soviet History, , in The People, s War, p. 212.

(665).nterviews with Rebekka(Rita) Kogan, St Petersburg, June, November 2003.

(666).A. Chuyanov, Stalingradskii dnevnik, 1941–1943(Volgograd, 1968), p. 209; Konstantin Simonov rasskazyvaet(Moscow, 1981), p. 106.

(667).RGASPI, f. 17, op. 125, d. 190, l. 16.

(668).D. Glantz, The Siege of Leningrad, 1941–1944: 900 Days of Terror(London, 2001), pp. 75–6.

(669).这一颇有影响力的理论,其经典表述来自:E. Shils and M. Janowitz, ,Cohesion and Disintegration in the Wehrmacht in World War II, , Public Opinion Quarterly, 1948, no. 12, pp. 280–315。

(670).E. Seniavskaia, Frontovoe pokolenie 1941–1945: istoriko-psikhologicheskoe issledovanie(Moscow, 1995), p. 86; same author, ,Dukhovnyi oblik, , pp. 46–7; C. Merridale, Night of Stone: Death and Memory in Russia(London, 2000), p. 279.

(671).R. Overy, Russia, s War(London, 1998), p. 197.

(672).J. Erickson, The Road to Berlin(London, 1983), p. 40.

(673).V. Zemskov, ,Ukaz ot 26 Iunia 1940 g.(Eshche odna kruglaia data), , Raduga, 1990, no. 6, p. 47.

(674).MP, f. 4, op. 15, d. 2, ll. 7–9; d. 3, l. 2.

(675).MP, f. 4, op. 11, d. 2, ll. 26–8.

(676).E. Bacon, The Gulag at War: Stalin, s Forced Labour System in the Light of the Archives(London, 1994), p. 144; L. Borodkin and S. Ertz, ,Coercion versus Motivation: Forced Labor in Norilsk, , in Paul Gregory and Valery Lazarev(eds.), The Economics of Forced Labor: The Soviet Gulag(Stanford, 2003), p. 78.

(677).S. Ertz, ,Building Norilsk, , in The Economics of Forced Labor, pp. 127–50; O vremeni, o Noril, ske, o sebe . . . Vospominaniia, 5 vols.(Moscow, 2001–6), vol. 3, p. 12; Borodkin and Ertz, ,Coercion versus Motivation, , pp. 77, 86–8.

(678).MM, f. 12, op. 18, d. 2, l. 27.

(679).Interviews with Vasilina Dmitruk, Vera Pristupa, Maria Treimanis(née Fishchuk), Norilsk, July 2004.

(680).Interview with Anna Darvina, Norilsk, July 2004.

(681).Interview with Semyon Golovko, Norilsk, July 2004.

(682).MM, f. 2, op. 5(,Khranit, vechno!, , ms.).

(683).RGALI, f. 3084, op. 1, d. 1390, ll. 1, 13; MSP, f. 3, op. 22, d. 2, ll. 19–21, 36–7; d. 4, ll. 15–16; interviews with Natalia Babailova, Severodvinsk, March and November 2005; interview with Nina Sazhnova, Saratov, November 2004; interview with Nina Levina, Krasnoiarsk, August 2005.

(684).N. Mandelstam, Hope Abandoned(London, 1989), p. 252; B. Pasternak, Doctor Zhivago(London, 1958), p. 453; O. Ivinskaia, V plenu vremeni: gody c B. Pasternakom(Moscow, 1972), p. 96.

(685).Kondrat, ev, ,Ne tol, ko o svoem pokolenii, , p. 224.

(686).M. Gefter, ,Stalin umer vchera . . ., , in Inogo ne dano(Moscow, 1988), p. 305; VFA, A. Levidova,,Vospominaniia, , ms., p. 118.

(687).H. Smith, The Russians(London, 1976), p. 369; V. Kondrat, ev, ,Paradoks frontovoi nostal, gii, , Literaturnaia gazeta, 9 May 1990, p. 9.

(688).Interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003.

(689).P. Blake and M. Hayward(eds.), Dissonant Voices in Soviet Literature(New York, 1962), pp. 164–7(translated by Walter Vickery).

(690).关于党的思想培训中心在战争中的崩溃,参见:R. Brody, Ideology and Political Mobilization: The Soviet Home Front During World War II(Pittsburgh, 1994), pp. 24–6。

(691).Merridale, Ivan, s War, p. 141;Werth, Russia at War, p. 943; Pravda, 24 June 1944, p. 2; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003; MSP, f. 3, op. 30, d. 2, l. 23.

(692).Smith, The Russians, p. 370.

(693).MM, f. 12, op. 25, d. 2.

(694).MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, ll. 46–53, 87–90; d. 3, ll. 27–33.

(695).MP, f. 4, op. 11, d. 2, ll. 10, 34–7.

(696).V. Pirozhkova, Poteriannoe pokolenie(St Petersburg, 1998), p. 154.

(697).TsAODM, f. 1870, op. 3, d. 1, ll. 15–17; d. 3, ll. 33–4.

(698).MM, f. 12, op. 21, d. 2, ll. 31–2.

(699).E. Zubkova, Russia After the War: Hopes, Illusions and Disappointments, 1945–1957(London, 1998), p. 17; ,Voina, kotoruiu ne znali: iz dnevnika, prokommentirovannogo samym avtorom 45 let spustia, , Sovetskaia kul, tura, 5 May 1990, p. 4; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003.

(700).M. Prishvin, Sobranie sochinenii, 8 vols.(Moscow, 1986), vol. 8, pp. 392, 435–6; VFA, A. Levidova,,Vospominaniia, , ms., p. 119; S. Gus, kov, Esli ostanus, zhiv(Moscow, 1989), p. 215; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003.

(701).GARF, f. 9041, op. 2, d. 202, l. 8; RGASPI, f. 558, op. 11, d. 868, l. 56; f. 17, op. 122, d. 122, ll. 27–30; Pravda, 11 September 1989.

(702).GARF, f. 7253, op. 16, d. 79, l. 173; Merridale, Ivan, s War, pp. 292–3.

(703).Seniavskaia, ,Dukhovnyi oblik, , pp. 49–50.

(704).T. Dunmore, Soviet Politics 1945–53(London, 1984), p. 129; Zubkova, Russia After the War, p. 94; Bordiugov, ,The Popular Mood, , pp. 66, 68.

(705).MSP, f. 3, op. 4, d. 2, ll. 41–2, 46, 57–8.

(706).MSP, f. 3, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 30–34, 74–8, 98.

(707).Simonov, Sobranie sochinenii, vol. 9. p. 639.

(708).SLFA, M. Laskin, ,Vospominaniia, , ms., p. 72.

(709).Pravda, 27 June 1945.

(710).Chelovek v istorii. Rossiia – XX vek: sbornik rabot pobeditelei(Moscow, 2002), p. 293.

(711).See Merridale, Ivan, s War, pp. 232–4.

(712).Kondrat, ev, ,Ne tol, ko o svoem pokolenii, , pp. 112–16; same author, ,Paradoks frontovoi nostal, gii, .

(713).MSP, f. 3, op. 29, d. 2, ll. 5–6.

(714).MM, f. 1, op. 1, d. 1942; d. 1944; f. 12, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 12–15, 68–9.

(715).MM, f. 1, op. 1, d. 1944.

(716).MM, f. 1, op. 1, d. 1944; f. 12, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 27, 29, 69.

(717).MM, f. 12, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 32–3.

(718).MM, f. 12, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 34, 71–2, 85.

第七章 普通的斯大林主义者(1945—1953)

(719).MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 64–89.

(720).E. Zubkova, Russia After the War: Hopes, Illusions and Disappointments, 1945–1957(London, 1998), pp. 20–21, 38; Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny: sbornik statei(St Petersburg, 2005), p. 130.

(721).M. Heller and A. Nekrich, Utopia in Power: The History of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the Present(London, 1986), pp. 472–3; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 387, l. 4; d. 389, l. 10.

(722).Zubkova, Russia After the War, pp. 11, 40. A lower rate of mortality(1.5 million deaths) is given by M. Ellman, ,The 1947 Soviet Famine and the Entitlement Approach to Famines, , Cambridge Journal of Economics, 24(September 2000), p. 615.

(723).MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 13, 19–20, 24–6, 76–9.

(724).RGASPI, f. 17, op. 117, d. 530, ll. 37–8.

(725).,Iz suzhdenii sovetskikh liudei o poslevoennykh problemakh i o zhizni v SSSR, , Istoriia otechestva v dokumentakh, 1945–1993(Moscow, 1995), p. 17.

(726).I. Ehrenburg, The War, 1941–45(London, 1964), p. 124; R. Service, A History of Twentieth-Century Russia(London, 1997), p. 299 (为求清晰,译文略有调整); A. Mikoian, Tak bylo: razmyshleniia o minuvshem(Moscow, 1999), pp. 513–14.

(727).Interview with Marianna Gordon, St Petersburg, October 2003.

(728).Interview with Valentina Aleksandrova, St Petersburg, December 2003.

(729).RGASPI, f. 17, op. 125, d. 424, ll. 58–71. 关于这些团体,参见:J. Fürst, ,Prisoners of the Self?Political Opposition Groups in Late Stalinism, , Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 54, no. 3(2002), pp. 353–75; H. Kuromiya, , ,,Political Youth Opposition in Late Stalinism,, : Evidence and Conjecture, , Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 55, no. 4(2003), pp. 631–8.

(730).MSP, f. 3, op. 20, d. 2, ll. 53, 59.

(731).MSP, f. 3, op. 47, d. 2, ll. 21, 31, 35, 38, 55.

(732).See N. Tumarkin, The Living and the Dead: The Rise and Fall of the Cult of World War II in Russia(New York, 1994), p. 104; L. Lazarev, Pamiat, trudnoi godiny. Velikaia otechestvennaia voina v russkoi literature(Moscow, 2000), pp. 61–3.

(733).Pravda, 10 February 1946; A. Applebaum, Gulag: A History of the Soviet Camps(London, 2003), p. 415.

(734).R. Overy, Russia, s War(London, 1997), pp. 304–7.

(735).A. Danilov and A. Pyzhikov, Rozhdenie sverkhderzhavy: SSSR v pervye poslevoennye gody(Moscow, 2001), p. 108.

(736).GARF, f. 9401, op. 2, d. 234, ll. 148, 153; d. 199, l. 392; S. Fitzpatrick, ,Postwar Soviet Society: The ,,Return to Normalcy,, , 1945–1953, , in S. Linz(ed.), The Impact of World War II on the Soviet Union(Totowa, 1985), pp. 143–5.

(737).P. Gregory, ,An Introduction to the Economics of the Gulag, , in P. Gregory and V. Lazarev(eds.), The Economics of Forced Labor: The Soviet Gulag(Stanford, 2003), pp. 14, 16; G. Alexopoulos, ,Amnesty 1945: The Revolving Door of Stalin, s Gulag, , Slavic Review, vol. 64, no. 2(Summer 2005), p. 274; Y. Gorlizki and O. Khlevniuk, Cold Peace: Stalin and the Soviet Ruling Circle, 1945–1953(Oxford, 2004), pp. 130–31, 268–71.

(738).关于在诺里尔斯克获得家庭重聚的好的案例,参见Kuznetsova-Babailova 的档案,见于:MSP, f. 3, op. 22, dd. 2–5。

(739).MM, f. 12, op. 20, d. 2.

(740).MSP, f. 3, op. 8, d. 2.

(741).L. Borodkin and S. Ertz, ,Coercion versus Motivation: Forced Labor in Norilsk, , in Gregory and Lazarev(eds.), The Economics of Forced Labor, pp. 102–3.

(742).V. Dunham, In Stalin, s Time: Middle-Class Values in Soviet Fiction(New York, 1976).

(743).N. DeWitt, Education and Professional Employment in the USSR(Washington, 1961), pp. 606–7, 638–9.

(744).A. Inkeles and R. Bauer, The Soviet Citizen: Daily Life in a Totalitarian Society(Cambridge, Mass. 1959), pp. 289, 326–7.

(745).C.Milosz, The Captive Mind(London, 1953), pp. 55, 57.

(746).Interviews with Irina Aleksandrova, St Petersburg, May, November 2003.

(747).MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, ll. 44–5.,

(748).MFA, L. Makhnach, ,Oskolki bylogo s vysoty nastoiashchego, ms., p. 76.

(749).MSP, f. 3, op. 34, d. 2, l. 4. See also MM, f. 12, op. 32, d. 2, ll. 77–8.

(750).MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 32–3.

(751).MP, f. 4, op. 13, d. 2, ll. 37–8, 39, 42–3, 56.

(752).Interviews with Iurii S, treletsky, St Petersburg, May 2003, February 2004.

(753).PFA, ,Vospominaniia, ms., pp. 17, 22–4; interviews with Tatiana Elagina, Moscow, May, October 2003(name changed on the request of the informant).

(754).MP, f. 4, op. 7, d. 2, ll. 3, 7, 11–12, 26, 28, 39–40.

(755).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 360, l. 45; K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia(Moscow, 1990), p. 82; A. Karaganov, Konstantin Simonov vblizi i na rasstoianii(Moscow 1987), p. 103.

(756).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 346.

(757).K. Simonov, Segodnia i davno(Moscow, 1978), pp. 143–4; N. Pushnova, Valentina Serova(Moscow, 2003), pp. 215–16.

(758).K. Chukovskii, Dnevnik, 1901–1969, 2 vols.(Moscow, 2003), vol. 2, p. 210; RGALI, f. 631, op. 15, d. 1004, l. 150; Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, p. 116.

(759).Interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; interview with Marina Babak, Moscow, November 2003.,

(760).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 343, l. 1; N. Bianki, K. Simonov i A. Tvardovskii v ,Novom mire(Moscow, 1999), p. 7; L. Fink, Konstantin Simonov(Moscow, 1979), pp. 220, 235, 251, 274.

(761).L. Chukovskaia, Sochineniia v 2 tomakh(Moscow, 2000), vol. 2, pp. 182, 186, 216. 西蒙诺夫当《文学报》主编时,被指责傲慢霸道(see RGASPI, f. 558, op. 11, d. 878, l. 55).,

(762).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 229, ll. 16, 20; Bianki, K. Simonov i A. Tvardovskii v ,Novom Mire, p. 16; B. Pankin, Chetyre Ia Konstantina Simonova(Moscow, 1999), pp. 19, 23, 35–5; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; interview with Marina Babak, Moscow, November 2003.

(763).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2590, ll. 1, 2. 关于Portugalov在科雷马劳改营的经历,参见瓦尔拉姆·沙拉莫夫对他的深情追忆,见于:RGALI, f. 2596, op. 2, d. 133, ll. 1–10。

(764).Karaganov, Konstantin Simonov, p. 136. On Smeliakov: Sluzhili dva tovarishcha: kniga o zhizni kinodramaturgov Dunskogo i Frida(Moscow, 2002), pp. 592–5.

(765).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 454, ll. 43, 45; d. 643, ll. 1–2; op. 9,, d . 1812, l. 4.

(766).I. Berlin, ,Meetings with Russian Writers in 1945 and 1956, in Personal Impressions(Oxford, 1982), pp. 160–61; N. Mandelstam, Hope Abandoned(London, 1989), p. 375.

(767).G. Carleton, The Politics of Reception: Critical Constructions of Mikhail Zoshchenko(Evanston, 1998), pp. 231–2.,

(768).,Doklad t. Zhdanova o zhurnalakh Zvezda i Leningrad, Novyi mir, 1946, no. 9, pp. iv–xix.

(769).Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 104–7; RGASPI, f. 17, op. 13,2 , d. 229, l. 21.

(770).Simonov, Segodnia i davno, pp. 337–8; A. Borshchagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sudby(Moscow, 1991), p. 235.

(771).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 331, ll. 1–2; Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 118–20, 137, 141; interview, with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003.

(772).SLFA, ,K.M., two-part film on DVD, comments by Benedikt Sarnov in Part 1, at twenty-six minutes; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003.

(773).B. Schwarz, Music and Musical Life in Soviet Russia, 1917–1970(London, 1972), pp. 208, 218; Gorlizki and Khlevniuk, Cold Peace, pp. 35–8; Zubkova, Russia After the War, pp. 119–23.

(774).H. Sali,s b ury, American in Russia(New York, 1955), pp. 16–20, 38; G. Ivanova, ,Poslevoennye repressii i Gulag, in Stalin i kholodnaia,v oina(Moscow, 1998), p., 255.

(775).J. Brent and V. Naukov, Stalins L,a st Crime: The DoctorsPlot(London, 2003), p. 96.

(776).,Evreiskii antifashistskii komitet, Izvestiia TsK KPSS, 1989, no. 12, p. 40; Reabilitatsiia: politicheskie protsessy 30–50-kh godov(Moscow, 1991), p. 326.

(777).Cited in A. Weiner, Making Sense of War: The Second World War and the Fate of the Bolshevik Revolution(Princeton, 2001), p. 195.,

(778).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2645, ll. 3–4, 9, 1,8 ; Borshchagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sudby, pp. 3, 77, 94; G. Kostyrchenko, Tainaia politika Stalina. Vlasti antisem, itizm(Moscow, 2001), pp. 319ff.

(779).A. Gerasimov, ,Za sovetskii patriotism v iskusstve, Pravda, 10 February 1949; N. Gribachev, ,Protiv kosmopolitizma i formalizma v poezii, , Pravda, 16 February 1949; T. Khrennikov, ,Burzhuaznye kosmopolity v muzykal, noi kritike, , Kul,tura i zhizn, , 20 February 1949; ,Do kontsa razoblachit, kosmopolitov-antipatriotov, , Pravda, 26–27 February 1949; L. Bol, shakov, ,Razgromit, burzhuaznyi kosmopolitizm v kinoiskusstve, , Pravda, 3 March 1949; etc.

(780).Kostyrchenko, Tainaia politika Stalina, pp. 334–5; Borshchagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sud,by, pp. 185, 188–91; RGASPI, f. 83, op. 1, d. 5, ll. 92–5.

(781).RGASPI, f. 17, op. 132, d. 237, ll. 13–15. See also RGASPI, f. 77, op. 4, d. 73, ll. 7–11; Bianki, K. Simonov i A. Tvardovskii v ,Novom Mire, , p. 19.

(782).RGASPI, f. 17, op. 118, d. 229, l. 17.

(783).N. Tipot(Sokolova), ,Dnevnik, , private archive. 关于索夫罗诺夫和西蒙诺夫竞相谋求法捷耶夫的官位,参见博尔切戈夫斯基的看法,见于:A. Borshchagovskii, Pustotelyi monolit(Moscow, 2002), pp. 133–4.

(784).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 19(,Vospominaniia o kampanii po bor, be s kosmopolitizmom, , ts., 1976); Borshchagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sud, by, p. 214.

(785).See e.g. K. Simonov, ,Zadachi sovetskoi dramaturgii i teatral, naia kritika, , Pravda, 27–8 February 1949(其有关萨特和米勒的评论,便出现于此); same author, ,Zadachi sovetskoi dramaturgii i teatral, naia kritika, , Literaturnaia gazeta, 5 March 1949.

(786).RGASPI, f. 17, op. 132, d. 226, ll. 1–6; d. 229, l. 30; Kostyrchenko, Tainaia politika Stalina, pp. 339–40.

(787).Borshchagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sud,by, pp. 19, 35–6, 49, 187, 200, 204, 215, 223, 272, 278–9; interview with Aleksandr Borshchagovsky, Moscow, November 2003.

(788).Borschagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sud,by, pp. 266, 279; interview with Aleksandr Borshchagovsky, Moscow, November 2003; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 4, l. 4.

(789).Interview with Aleksandr Borshchagovsky, Moscow, November 2003; Borshchagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sud,by, pp. 4, 240.

(790).Ibid., pp. 261–2.

(791).See A. Kozhevnikov, ,President of Stalin, s Academy: The Mask and Responsibility of Sergei Vavilov,, Isis, vol. 87, no. 1(March 1996), pp. 18–50; N. Tolstoi(ed.), Brat, ia Nikolai i Sergei Vavilovy(Moscow, 1991); M. Popovsky, The Vavilov Affair(Hamden, 1984); S. Ivanovich Vavilov: ocherki i vospominaniia(Moscow, 1991). 瓦维洛夫悄悄地抵制官方决定,但他的异议一直没有受到关注,这在某种程度上解释了索尔仁尼琴为何攻击他为“科学院的走狗主席”,参见索尔仁尼琴:The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956:An Experiment in Literary Investigation, 3 vols.(London, 1974–8), vol. 2, p. 638。

(792).RGASPI, f. 17, op. 132, d. 237, ll. 14–15; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1365, l. 1; f. 2203, op. 1, d. 333, l. 1; f. 631, op. 16, d. 90; f. 2203, op. 1, d. 333, l. 5; d. 336, l. 11; interview with Nina Arkhipova, Moscow, November 2003; Borshchagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sud, by, p. 321.

(793).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 6, dd. 70, 173; d. 170, l. 17; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, July 2004.

(794).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 500.

(795).Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 126–8; Fink, Konstantin Simonov, p. 229.

(796).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 563; op. 4, d. 10; op. 9, d. 5, ll. 69–70; RGASPI, f. 82, op. 2, d. 1458, l. 49; f. 558, op. 11, d. 806, l. 164; Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 128–31.

(797).Ibid., pp. 135–7.

(798).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 809, ll. 1–6; Karaganov, Konstantin Simonov, pp. 88–9; Simonov, Segodnia i davno, pp. 609–10.

(799).K. Simonov, Sobranie sochinenii, 12 vols.(Moscow, 1979–87), vol. 12, p. 41.

(800).Interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 454, ll. 28–41.

(801).Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 185–9.

(802).See Gosudarstvennyi antisemitizm v SSSR: ot nachala do kul, minatsii, 1938–1953(Moscow, 2005), pp. 27–61.

(803).Borshchagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sud, by, p. 267.

(804).MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, ll. 13, 52; I. Shikheeva-Gaister, Semeinaia khronika vremen kul’ta lichnosti: 1925–1953(Moscow, 1998), pp. 72–3, 78–9, 257.

(805).MM, f. 2, op. 5, d. 3; f. 12, op. 30, d. 2, l. 27.

(806).Interviews with Mark Epshtein, St Petersburg, June and October 2003.

(807).SLFA, various documents; interview with Fania Laskina, Moscow, June 2003; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1533; RGASPI, f. 495, op. 199, d. 207(Zaidler).

(808).A. Simonov, Chastnaia kollektsiia(Nizhny Novgorod 1999), p. 61.

(809).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1541, l. 36; d. 1770, l. 2.

(810).Simonov, Chastnaia kollektsiia, pp. 59–61.

(811).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2581.

(812).Kostyrchenko, Tainaia politika Stalina, pp. 619–26.

(813).Interviews with Fania Laskina, Moscow, June 2003, July 2004; interviews with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; SLFA, Iakov Kharon to Sonia Laskina, 8 March 1954; Yevgeniia to Sonia Laskina, 28 May 1954.

(814).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 454, l. 32; op. 10, d. 92, l. 37; RGASPI, f. 17, op. 133, d. 390, ll. 81–4; d. 389, ll. 158–63; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003. For evidence of Simonov, s authorship of the letter of 24 March see Nash sovremennik, 1999, no. 1, p. 206.

(815).Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 189–204.

(816).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 1, d. 802, l. 95.

(817).RGASPI, f. 17, op. 119, d. 452, ll. 4–6; Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 220–22; Fink, Konstantin Simonov, p. 112.

(818).Brent and Naukov, Stalin, s Last Crime, pp. 9, 129, 176, 184; SLFA, M. Laskin, ,Vospominaniia, , ms., p. 86; Zubkova, Russia After the War, p. 137.

(819).S. Sebag Montefiore, Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar(London, 2003), p. 568.

(820).Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 223–7.

(821).Ibid., p. 229.

(822).RGALI, f, 1814, op. 4, d. 10, l. 5.

(823).SLFA, M. Laskin, ,Vospominaniia, , ms., pp. 87–8.

(824).MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 13, 30.

(825).MP, f. 4, op. 23, d. 2, l. 15.

(826).Mandelstam, Hope Abandoned, p. 385.

(827).MM, f. 12, op. 9, d. 2, l. 67.

(828).MP, f. 4, op. 11, d. 2, l. 46; op. 5, d. 2, l. 12.

(829).MSP, f. 3, op. 4, d. 2, l. 31.

(830).A. Knight, Beria: Stalin, s First Lieutenant(Princeton, 1993), p. 185; A. Lokshin, , ,,Delo vrachei,, :,,Otkliki trudiashchikhsia,, , , Vestnik evreiskogo universiteta v Moskve, 1994, no. 1, pp. 52–62.

(831).MSP, f. 3, op. 4, d. 2, ll. 43–4.

(832).Interview with Zinaida Belikova, St Petersburg, May 2003.

(833).Shikheeva-Gaister, Semeinaia khronika, p. 175.

(834).Sluzhili dva tovarishcha, p. 357; MM, f. 12, op. 30, d. 2, l. 22; O. Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put, (Moscow, 2002), p. 201.

(835).See Applebaum, Gulag, pp. 435–53.

(836).A. Makarova, ,Noril, skoe vosstanie. Mai-avgust 1953 goda, , ms.; Applebaum, Gulag, pp. 437, 440; MM, f. 12, op. 20, d. 2, ll. 74–5, 89, 91.

(837).MM, f. 12, op. 20, d. 2, ll. 34, 48; f. 1, op. 1, d. 1925, ll. 11–30.

(838).MM, f. 12, op. 20, d. 2, l. 92; MSP, f. 3, op. 8, d. 2, l. 18; d. 3, ll. 20–22; interview with Vasilina Dmitruk, Norilsk, July 2004.

(839).1954年5月至6月,哈萨克斯坦的Steplag特殊劳改营,其Kengir分营的造反也有同样温和的要求。参见:S. Barnes, , ,,In a Manner Befitting Soviet Citizens,, : An Uprising in the Post-Stalin Gulag, , Slavic Review, vol. 64, no. 4(Winter 2005), pp. 823–50.

(840).MM, f. 12, op. 20, d. 2, ll. 98, 101.

(841).Istoriia stalinskogo gulaga: konets 1920-kh – pervaia polovina 1950-kh godov. Sobranie dokumentov v semi tomakh, vol. 6, Vosstaniia, bunty i zabastovski zakliuchennykh(Moscow, 2004), pp. 320–413; Applebaum, Gulag, pp. 441–2; interview with Semyon Golovko, Norilsk, July 2004.

第八章 归来(1953—1956)

(842).SLFA, Spravka MVD, 11 November 1955; Yevgeniia to Sonia Laskina, 8 September 1955, 5 October 1955; interview with Fania Laskina, September 2003; interview with Aleksei Simonov, November 2003.

(843).Reabilitatsiia: kak eto bylo. Dokumenty prezidiuma TsKPSS i drugie materialy: mart 1953–fevral, 1956(Moscow, 2000), p. 213.

(844).SLFA, Sonia Laskina to Dmitry Shepilov, 4 June 1955; V. Frid, 58?: zapiski lagernogo pridurka(Moscow, 1996), pp. 358–9.

(845).Y. Gorlizki and O. Khlevniuk, Cold Peace: Stalin and the Soviet Ruling Circle, 1945–1953(Oxford, 2004), p. 131; D. Shepilov, Neprimknuvshii(Moscow, 2001), p. 267; A. Knight, Beria: Stalin, s First Lieutenant(Princeton, 1993), pp. 209–10; K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia(Moscow, 1990), pp. 246–7.

(846).V.Naumov, ,Repression andRehabilitation, , inW.Taubman, S.Khrushchev andA.Gleason(eds.), Nikita Khrushchev(New Haven, 2000), pp. 90–91; SLFA, Sonia Laskina to Dmitry Shepilov, 4 June 1955; Konstantin Simonov to Yevgeniia Laskina, 24 September 1955.

(847).N. Khrushchev, Khrushchev Remembers: The Last Testament, translated and edited by S. Talbott(Boston, 1974), p. 79; A. Hochschild, The Unquiet Ghost: Russians Remember Stalin(London, 1994), p. 223; N. Adler, Beyond the Soviet System: The Gulag Survivor(New Brunswick, 2002), pp. 90–93.

(848).SLFA, Yevgeniia to Sonia Laskina, 16 September 1955; Vladimir Lugovskoi to Yevgeniia Laskina, 20 July 1956; Maia Bykova to Yevgeniia Laskina, 25 December 1974; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, June 2003.

(849).E. Bonner, Mothers and Daughters(London, 1992), pp. 89–90, 328, 330–31; interview with Elena Bonner, Boston, November 2006.

(850).可对照于异议分子柳德米拉·阿列克谢耶娃(Liudmila Alekseyeva)的回忆录。她提到,阅读赫尔岑的作品和仿效十二月党人的榜样,同样促使她在道德上与苏维埃政权保持距离。参见:L. Alexeyeva and P. Goldberg, The Thaw Generation: Coming of Age in the Post-Stalin Era(Boston, 1990), pp. 34–5.

(851).MSP, f. 3, op. 33, d. 2, ll. 33, 39.

(852).MSP, f. 3, op. 45, d. 2, l. 47.

(853).MSP, f. 3, op. 45, d. 2, ll. 132, 166.

(854).MSP, f. 3, op. 45, d. 2, ll. 26–7, 89–90, 134.

(855).MSP, f. 3, op. 24, d. 2, l. 38.

(856).MSP, f. 3, op. 35, d. 2, ll. 40–54.

(857).MSP, f. 3, op. 39, d. 2, ll. 27, 29.

(858).MSP, f. 3, op. 39, d. 3, ll. 1–5.

(859).MSP, f. 3, op. 39, d. 2, ll. 31.

(860).MSP, f. 3, op. 39, d. 2, ll. 36, 47, 52, 54.

(861).B. Okudzhava, ,Devushka moei mechty, , in Izbrannye proizvedeniia v dvukh tomakh(Moscow, 1989), vol. 2, pp. 283–94.

(862).MP, f. 4, op. 10, d. 2, ll. 9, 28.

(863).MSP, f. 3, op. 38, d. 2, ll. 19, 36.

(864).MM, f. 12, op. 29, d. 2, l. 20.

(865).SFA, I. Slavina, ,Tonen, kii nerv istorii, , ms., p. 17; interview with Ida Slavina, Cologne, June 2003.

(866).MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 23–4, 43–5.

(867).GFA, letter from Anatoly to Liuba Golovnia, 5 December 1940; O. Golovnia, ,Predislovie k pis, mam,, ms., p. 70; L. Golovnia-Babitskaia, ,Predsmertnye zapiski, , ms., p. 4; A. Bachinskii, ,Zhizn, , liubov, i smert, Anatoliia Golovni, , Stolitsa S, 17 January 1997; interview with Yevgeniia Golovnia, Moscow, July 2004.

(868).MSP, f. 3, op. 46, d. 3, l. 43; MM, f. 12, op. 29, d. 2, ll. 34–5.

(869).M. Nikolaev, Detdom(New York, 1985), p. 96; interviews with Viktoriia Shweitser, Moscow, July 2004; Amherst, November 2006.

(870).O. Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put,(Moscow, 2002), p. 153.

(871).Ibid., pp. 154–5.

(872).关于这一点,参见:D. Field, ,Communist Morality and Meanings of Private Life in Post-Stalinist Russia, 1953–64, (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1996). 关于青年文化,参见:J. Fürst, ,The Importance of Being Stylish: Youth, Culture and Identity in Late Stalinism, , in same author(ed.), Late Stalinist Russia: Society between Reconstruction and Reinvention(London, 2006), pp. 209–30.

(873).MM, f. 12, op. 16, d. 2, ll. 78, 79–80, 85, 97.

(874).MFA, L. Makhnach, ,Otets, , ms., pp. 3–8; interview with Leonid Makhnach, Moscow, July 2004.

(875).MSP, f. 3, op. 8, d. 2, l. 24.

(876).L. El, iashova, Kak zhit, ? O zhizni Sof, i Mikhailovny Firsovoi,Sankt-Peterburgskii Universitet, no. 22(3489), 20 October 1998, p. 24; Frid, 58?, p. 389; Sluzhili dva tovarishcha: kniga o zhizni kinodramaturgov Dunskogo i Frida(Moscow, 2002), p. 146.

(877).MM, f. 12, op. 18, d. 2, ll. 12–14, 17–19.

(878).MSP, f. 3, op. 41, d. 2, ll. 37–41, 83–6; d. 3, l. 2.

(879).MP, f. 4, op. 22, d. 2, ll. 16, 29, 35, 50, 53, 59.

(880).MM, f. 1, op. 1, dd. 841, 2676; f. 12, op. 4, d. 2, ll. 59–80.

(881).GFA, N. Iznar, ,Avtobiografiia, ; Natalia Iznar to Elena Abezgauz, undated.

(882).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2581, ll. 28–36.

(883).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 229, ll. 15, 17, 18, 21, 32, 47, 48.

(884).MM, f. 2, op. 1, d. 45, l. 1105; A. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956: An Experiment in Literary Investigation, 3 vols.(London, 1974–8), vol. 3, p. 455.

(885).A. Applebaum, ,After the Gulag, , New York Review of Books, vol. 49, no. 16(24 October 2002), p. 41.

(886).MP, f. 4, op. 10, d. 2, ll. 10–13.

(887).Adler, Beyond the Soviet System, pp. 30–31; A. Applebaum, Gulag: A History of the Soviet Camps(London, 2003), p. 460; C. Hooper, ,Terror from Within: Participation and Coercion in Soviet Power, 1924–64, (Ph.D. dissertation, PrincetonUniversity, 2003), p. 377.

(888).Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. 3, p. 451.

(889).RGASPI, f. 560, op. 1, d. 37, l. 487.

(890).MM, f. 2, op. 1, d. 29(Anatolii Brat [Zhukov], ,Zhutkie gody, ).

(891).MSP, f. 3, op. 8, d. 2, l. 28.

(892).MP, f. 4, op. 6, d. 2, ll. 28–30, 39–40.

(893).MM, f. 12, op. 20, d. 2, l. 124.

(894).MP, f. 4, op. 6, d. 2, l. 29.

(895).MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, l. 26.

(896).Adamova-Sliuzberg, Put, , pp. 207–8.

(897).MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, l. 46.

(898).MP, f. 4, op. 43, d. 2, l. 2.

(899).MSP, f. 3, op. 46, d. 2, ll. 51–4; d. 3, ll. 49–50.

(900).TsAFSB, Arkhivno-sledstvennoe delo I. V. Slavina(P-51969); ,Delo reabilitatsii, (N4N-012826/55); SFA, I. Slavina, ,Put, na plakhu, , ms., pp. 3–6, 103; interview with Ida Slavina, Cologne, June 2003.

(901).MSP, f. 3, op. 10, d. 2, ll. 15, 30–31; d. 3, ll. 34–5. See also MSP, f. 3, op. 38, d. 2, ll. 23–6; MM, f. 12, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 28–30.

(902).L. Chukovskaia, Zapiski ob Anne Akhmatovoi, 3 vols.(Paris, 1980), vol. 2, p. 137.

(903).MSP, f. 3, op. 12, d. 2, ll. 60–67, 131–3.

(904).MSP, f. 2, op. 51, d. 2, ll. 3–7.

(905).MM, f. 12, op. 10, d. 2, ll. 18–23.

(906).MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, ll. 66–8; d. 3, ll. 54–5.

(907).I. Sherbakova, ,The Gulag in Memory, , in L. Passerini(ed.), International Yearbook of Oral History and Life Stories, vol. 1: Memory and Totalitarianism(Oxford, 1992), p. 114(为求清晰,译文略有调整).

(908).See A. Inkeles and R. Bauer, The Soviet Citizen: Daily Life in a Totalitarian Society(Cambridge, Mass., 1959).

(909).N. Mandelstam, Hope Against Hope(London, 1989), p. 48.

(910).Ibid., p. 49.

(911).Vokrug Fadeeva: neizvestnye pis, ma, zametki i dokumenty(Moscow, 1996), pp. 12, 122; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 5, l. 30; V. Kaverin, Epilog: memuary(Moscow, 2002), pp. 313–24.

(912).Izvestiia TsK KPSS, 1990, no. 10, p. 147.

(913).关于法捷耶夫的善举,参见:K. Chukovskii, Dnevnik, 1901–69, 2 vols.(Moscow, 2003), vol. 2, pp. 282–3; A. Borshchagovskii, Zapiski balovnia sud, by(Moscow, 1991), p. 21;阿赫玛托娃1956年3月10日曾写信给法捷耶夫,感谢他为争取她儿子Lev Gumilyov 从西伯利亚劳动营获释而作出的努力(“在那可怕的岁月中,你的善良和同情超过了任何其他人”),载于Vokrug Fadeeva, p. 161。

(914).RGALI, f. 618, op. 16, d. 88, l. 16.

(915).Literaturnaia gazeta, 17 July 1954, pp. 2–3; 20 July 1954, pp. 2–3.

(916).Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 248–53; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003.

(917).Pravda, 4 July 1954, p. 3.

(918).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1770, ll. 21–2. 关于公众对该小说的反应,参见:D. Kozlov, ,Naming the Social Evil: The Readers of Novyi mir and Vladimir Dudintsev, s Not by Bread Alone, 1956–1959, , in P. Jones(ed.), The Dilemmas of De-Stalinization: A Social and Cultural History of Reform in the Khrushchev Era(London, 2005), pp. 80–98.

(919).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1770, l. 15; K. Simonov, Segodnia i davno(Moscow, 1978), p. 78; A za mnoiu shum pogoni: Boris Pasternak i vlast, . Dokumenty 1956–72(Moscow, 2001), pp. 89–90.

(920).L. Lazarev, Shestoi etazh: kniga vospominaniia(Moscow, 1999), p. 201.

(921).Reabilitatsiia: kak eto bylo, pp. 349–51; W. Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era(London, 2003), pp. 270, 272, 274, 278.

(922).Reabilitatsiia: kak eto bylo, pp. 5–6; Taubman, Khrushchev, pp. 273–4.

第九章 记忆(1956—2006)

(923).W. Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era(London, 2003), pp. 282–3.,

(924).P. Jones, ,From the Secret Speech to the Burial of Stalin: Real and Ideal Responses to De-Stalinization, in same author(ed.), The Dilemmas of De-Stalinization: A Social and Cultural History of Reform in the Khrushchev Era(London, 2005), p. 47.

(925).L. Alexeyeva and P. Goldberg, The Thaw Generation: Coming of Age in the Post-Stalin Era(Boston, 1990), p. 4.

(926).MM, f. 12, op. 4, d. 2, ll. 47, 78.

(927).MSP, f. 3, op. 18, d. 2, ll. 21–2.

(928).MP, f. 4, op. 26, d. 2, ll. 12–14.

(929).MP, f. 4, op. 22, d. 2, ll. 14, 62–4.

(930).MP, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, ll. 36–41.

(931).MSP, f. 3, op. 19, d. 2, ll. 5, 24–33.

(932).MP, f. 4, op. 19, d. 2, ll. 26–7, 41–5; d. 3, l. 1; d. 4, ll. 1–3.,

(933).I. Shikheeva-Gaister, Semeinaia khronika vremen kulta lichnosti: 1925–1953(Moscow, 1998), pp. 266–7; MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, ll. 31–2, 76.

(934).MSP, f. 3, op. 8, d. 2, l. 25; M, P, f. 4, op. 2, d. 2, l. 23; MM, f. 12, op. 30, d. 2, ll. 36–8.

(935).V. Shalamov, ,Dry Rations, in Kolyma Tales(London, 1994), p. 43; MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, l. 45. See also: op. 1, d. 2, ll. 33–4; op. 36, d. 2, ll. 7–9.

(936).C. Merridale, Night of Stone: Death and Memory in Russia(London, 2000), p. 21.

(937).C. Garland(ed.), Understanding Trauma: A Psychoanal,y tical Approach(London, 1998), pp. 4–5; D. Laub, ,Truth and Testimony: The Process and the Struggle, in C. Caruth(ed.), Trauma: Explorations in Memory(Baltimore, 1995), pp. 61–75.

(938).MSP, f. 3, op. 15, d. 3, l. 1.

(939).Interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; interview with Marina Babak, Moscow, November 2003; interview with Nina Arkhipova, Moscow, November 2003.

(940).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1538; V. Pushnova, Valentina Serova(Moscow, 2003), pp. 258–84; interview with Maria Simonova, Moscow, March 2004.

(941).Pushnova, Valentina Serova, p. 322; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 775, l. 1.

(942).Interview with Maria Simonova, Moscow, March 2004; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 775, l. 1.

(943).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1770, l. 18; interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, September 2003.,

(944).SLFA, Yevgeniia Laskina to Aleksei Simonov, 28 August 1957; Mark Laskin, ,Vospominaniia, ts., p. 15; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10. d. 342, l. 20; interview with Fania Laskina, Moscow, July 2004; A. Simonov, Chastnaia kollektsiia(Nizhny Novgorod, 1999), pp. 42, 44–5, 148.

(945).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 2199, l. 2.

(946).SLFA, Aleksei Simonov to Yevgeniia Laskina, 19 August 1956; Aleksei Simonov to Konstantin Simonov, 24 October 1956; Konstantin to Aleksei Simonov, 31 August 1956.

(947).SLFA, Yevgeniia Laskina to Aleksei Simonov, 26 September 1956; Simonov, Chastnaia kollektsiia, p. 67; Aleksei to Konstantin Simonov, 7 February 1957.

(948).Interview with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, November 2003; SLFA, Aleksei Simonov, Diary, 23 December 1956; Aleksei Simonov to Vladimir Dudintsev, 13 December 1956; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1770, ll. 15–17, 22.

(949).K. Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia(Moscow, 1990), p. 12; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 2, d. 127, ll. 2–3, 8.

(950).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1770, l. 12.

(951).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 1770, l. 13.

(952).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 6, d. 170, l. 17.

(953).V. Kondrat, ev, ,Ne tol, ko o svoem pokolenii. Zametki pisatelia, , Kommunist, 1997, no. 7, p. 122.

(954).Interview with Marina Babak, Moscow, November 2003.

(955).K. Simonov, Sto sutok voiny(Smolensk, 1999); same author, Raznye dni voiny: dnevnik pisatelia, 2 vols.(Moscow, 1977–8).

(956).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 11, ll. 1–21; op. 8, d. 58, l. 98.

(957).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, dd. 2590, 681, 1857.

(958).Simonov, Chastnaia kollektsiia, pp. 147–55. 这个删减约有60页打印稿,即刻出现于地下出版物,自1969年起又进入该小说的外国版本。它完整的俄文版本于1973年在苏联第一次出版。参见R. Pevear的简介和注释,载于他翻译的布尔加科夫《大师与玛格丽特》(The Master and Margarita)(伦敦,1997年),vii–xix页。

(959).Interviews with Aleksei Simonov, Moscow, September, November 2003, February 2004.

(960).RGALI, f. 1814, op. 10, d. 376, ll. 20–21; Konstantin Simonov v vospominaniiakh sovremennikov(Moscow, 1984), p. 291;N. Bianki, K. Simonov i A. Tvardovskii v ,Novom Mire, (Moscow, 1999), pp. 32–3.

(961).L. Lazarev, Shestoi etazh: kniga vospominaniia(Moscow, 1999), pp. 208, 210; interview with Lazar Lazarev, Moscow, November 2003; Simonov, Sto sutok voiny, pp. 550–54; RGALI, f. 1814, op. 9, d. 5, l. 63; op. 9, d. 19(,Vospominaniia o kampanii po bor, be s kosmopolitizmom, , ts., 1976).

(962).K. Simonov and I. Ehrenburg, V odnoi gazete: reportazhi i stati 1941–1945(Moscow, 1979); Lazarev, Shestoi etazh, pp. 201–2.

(963).A. Solzhenitsyn, The Oak and the Calf: Sketches of Literary Life in the Soviet Union(London, 1980), p. 299.

(964).Interview with Viktor Erofeev, Moscow, November 2003; interview with Andrei Erofeev, Moscow, April 2004; interview with Nina Arkhipova, Moscow, November 2003; D. Gillespie, ,Metropol, , , The Literary Encyclopedia, 19 November 2005.

(965).Simonov, Glazami cheloveka moego pokoleniia, pp. 7–8.

(966).Ibid. Fragments of the memoirs were first published in the journal Znamia in 1988, no. 3, pp. 3–66; no. 4, pp. 49–121; no. 5, pp. 69–96.

(967).See e.g. A. Mikoian, Tak bylo: razmyshleniia o minuvshem(Moscow, 1999), p. 589 (“当然,我们负有很大责任,但必须弄清当时的工作环境。我们相信,我们对很多事是茫然无知的。??在任何情况下,我们都无法作出改变。”)

(968).Lev Razgon, True Stories(London, 1997), pp. 21–34.

(969).Interview with Ivan Korchagin, Akmolinsk, September 1988.

(970).IFA, ,Kommentarii k pis, mam, , ts., 1988; Mikhail Iusipenko to M. Zelder, 29 December 1988; Mikhail Iusipenko to Sergei Barinov, 18 August 1988; interview with Oksana Kozmina, Moscow, 1988.

(971). MM, f. 1, op. 2; f. 2, op. 5; f. 12, op. 9, dd. 2, 3.

(972).关于记忆与叙事之间的关系,参见:V. Skultans, The Testimony of Lives: Narrative and Memory in Post-Soviet Latvia(London, 1998).

(973).Alexander Dolgun, s Story: An American in the Gulag(New York, 1975), p. 4.

(974).I. Sherbakova, ,The Gulag in Memory, , in L. Passerini(ed.), International Yearbook of Oral History and Life Stories, vol. 1: Memory and Totalitarianism(Oxford, 1992), pp. 112–13(为求清晰,译文略有调整).

(975).See e.g. MSP, f. 3, op. 42, d. 3, ll. 1–24.

(976).M. McAuley, Soviet Politics 1917–1991(Oxford, 1992), pp. 56–7.

(977).关于古拉格回忆录成为一种文学体裁,参见:Leona Toker, Return from the Archipelago: Narratives of Gulag Survivors(Bloomington, 2000).

(978).E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind(London, 1968); Within the Whirlwind(London, 1981).

(979).C. Merridale, Ivan, s War: The Red Army 1939–1945(London, 2005), p. 334; A. Applebaum, ,The Real PatrioticWar, , New York Review of Books, vol. 53, no. 6(6 April 2006), pp. 16, 18.

(980).Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, p. 201.

(981).O vremeni, o Noril, ske, o sebe: vospominaniia, 5 vols.(Moscow, 2001–4); A. Macqueen, ,Survivors, , Granta, 64(Winter 1998), p. 39.

(982).Interview with Vasily Romashkin, Norilsk, July 2004.

(983).Interview with Olga Iaskina, Norilsk, July 2004. This paragraph is based on interviews with over fifty people in Norilsk during July 2004. See the List of Interviews in Sources.

(984).Moscow News, 4 March 2005.

(985).Mikhail Baitalsky, Notebooks for the Grandchildren: Recollections of a Trotskyist Who Survived the Stalin Terror(New Jersey, 1995), pp. 97–8.

(986).MP, f. 4, op. 13, d. 2, l. 18.

(987).MP, f. 4, op. 24, d. 2, ll. 64–7.

(988).MP, f. 4, op. 22, d. 2, ll. 67–71.

(989).关于这种现象,参见:H. Krystal, Massive Psychic Trauma(New York, 1968); D.Wardl, Memorial Candles: Children of the Holocaust, London, 1992; N. Burchardt, ,Transgenerational Transmission in the Families of Holocaust Survivors in England, , in D. Bertaux and P. Thompson(eds.), International Yearbook of Oral History and Life Stories, vol. 2: Between Generations: Family Models, Myths and Memories(Oxford, 1993), pp. 121–37. 心理学家玛琳娜·古丽娜(Marina Gulina),在列宁格勒围城的幸存者所带大的孩子中,进行了一项有趣的试验研究。其中的详细信息,参见:,Malen, kii prints v blokadnom Leningrade: psikhoanaliticheskoe issledovanie, , Sankt-Peterburgskii Universitet, no. 9(3698), 5 May 2005, pp. 32–5.

(990).MSP, f. 3, op. 11, d. 1, ll. 1–2; d. 2, ll. 53–60, 74–84.

(991).MSP, f. 3, op. 37, d. 2, l. 63; interview with Vladimir Korsakov, St Petersburg, May, October 2003.

(992).Interviews with Aleksei Iurasovsky, Moscow, July 2004, October 2005.

(993).MP, f. 4, op. 24, d. 2, ll. 36–7, 44–7; MSP, f. 3, op. 16, d. 2, l. 91.

(994).MP, f. 4, op. 26, d. 2, ll. 6–8; op. 3, d. 2, l. 37.

(995).MP, f. 12, op. 4, d. 2, ll. 75–6.

(996).MP, f. 12, op. 16, d. 2, l. 23; op. 17, d. 2, l. 52.

(997).MP, f. 12, op. 17, d. 2, ll. 52–3.

(998).B. Slutskii, Sud, ba. Stikhi raznykh let(Moscow, 1990), p. 40.

(999).See e.g. MP, f. 4, op. 5, d. 2, l. 20; op. 24, d. 2, ll. 70–73. 有些口述历史学者认为,2000年之后,在弗拉基米尔·普京的威权政府统治下,俄国人好像回到了苏维埃时期,“因社会压力而重趋沉默”,与90年代早期相比,“不太愿意提供坦率的访谈”(D. Bertaux, P. Thompson and A. Rotkirch(eds.), On Living Through Soviet Russia(London, 2004), pp. 8–9)。

(1000).MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 3, ll. 52–4.

(1001).MSP, f. 3, op. 14, d. 2, ll. 41–5, 59–64, 76, 85–9, 93, 119; d. 3, ll. 34, 39–40, 45–6. Antonia died in December 2006.

 
32
 
 
分享 | 摘抄 | 搜索 | 字典
Twitter Facebook 新浪微博 豆瓣
关闭 上一页 下一页
上一页下一页
分享到Twitter 分享到Facebook 添加到Pinboard 添加到Diigo 分享到新浪微博 分享到微信 推荐到豆瓣 通过邮件发送